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Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

Wiman NG, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Rondon SI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity.Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI).We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

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Top view of a feeding table.
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pone-0113514-g001: Top view of a feeding table.

Mentions: Configuration of our EMIF system differs from systems used in previous studies in that we used two self-contained ‘feeding tables’, each with eight individual feeding ‘stations’. Feeding tables were essentially boxes that allowed compact layout of feeding stations so that feeding activity of eight individual insects per table could be monitored concurrently in environment chambers. Two feeding tables were constructed of wooden boxes (38.75 cm length, 25.5 cm width) and each contained eight holes (57 mm diameter), which accommodated tightly fitting screw caps lids (S-14506 ULINE, Pleasant Prairie, WI) and white polypropylene jars (120 ml; Figure 1). The centers of the fitted cup lids contained a smaller 50 mm diameter hole, leaving a threaded ring in the wood hole allowing the cups to be easily screwed into place from under the box to place H. halys into the feeding station (Figure 2). The entire top of each box was covered with a sheet of woven copper mesh (0.43 mm strand, 1 mm opening) that was stapled tightly to the box (Figure 1). Two portholes (½ in, 127 mm) were drilled into the long side of each box at the mid point between the first and second pair of holes to accommodate the electrode assemblies. The electrode assemblies consisted of two chains of ¼ in (64 mm) Loc-Line (LP-41401, Lockwood Products, Lake Oswego, OR) articulated plastic tubing segments, and these were joined by a Y fitting (LP-41408) and threaded into a port with a coupler (LP-41406). The tip of each electrode assembly was fitted with a nozzle (Loc-Line, LP-41403) and a 7.62 cm segment of solid copper wire (10 Ga, Artistic Wire, Coatesville, PA) soldered to a length of braided electrical wire (16 Ga.) was threaded through the port in the feeding table and through each tube segment and nozzle until just the large-gauge copper wire was protruding from the nozzle. A drop of hot glue applied between this wire electrode and the nozzle tip prevented the wire from sliding into the nozzle. A central port (190.5 mm) was added to one of the short sides of each box (“front”), and through this opening all of the wires from the individual electrodes were routed (Figure 1, 2). An automotive 9-pin male/female quick-connect coupler (with one wire removed) was attached to the 8 electrode lead wires, with a unique color representing each electrode and station. The other end of the coupler was wired to a 3 m long bundle of 8 wires representing the different electrodes. Wire bundles were wrapped with electrical tape and cable sleeves. The wire bundles connected to each box (8 wires each) were wired directly to the analog input (AI) terminals of a single USB data acquisition instrument (USB-6210, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX), which was connected to a PC via USB port. A regulated DC power supply (Mastech HY3003D, Acifica, Inc., San Jose, CA) was set to deliver +5 VDC to a steel L bracket that was screwed into table surface to serve as a power connection to the copper screen through a wire (16 Ga) and alligator clip. This single common screen served as the sole power substrate for each station on each table.


Electronically monitored labial dabbing and stylet 'probing' behaviors of brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in simulated environments.

Wiman NG, Walton VM, Shearer PW, Rondon SI - PLoS ONE (2014)

Top view of a feeding table.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256200&req=5

pone-0113514-g001: Top view of a feeding table.
Mentions: Configuration of our EMIF system differs from systems used in previous studies in that we used two self-contained ‘feeding tables’, each with eight individual feeding ‘stations’. Feeding tables were essentially boxes that allowed compact layout of feeding stations so that feeding activity of eight individual insects per table could be monitored concurrently in environment chambers. Two feeding tables were constructed of wooden boxes (38.75 cm length, 25.5 cm width) and each contained eight holes (57 mm diameter), which accommodated tightly fitting screw caps lids (S-14506 ULINE, Pleasant Prairie, WI) and white polypropylene jars (120 ml; Figure 1). The centers of the fitted cup lids contained a smaller 50 mm diameter hole, leaving a threaded ring in the wood hole allowing the cups to be easily screwed into place from under the box to place H. halys into the feeding station (Figure 2). The entire top of each box was covered with a sheet of woven copper mesh (0.43 mm strand, 1 mm opening) that was stapled tightly to the box (Figure 1). Two portholes (½ in, 127 mm) were drilled into the long side of each box at the mid point between the first and second pair of holes to accommodate the electrode assemblies. The electrode assemblies consisted of two chains of ¼ in (64 mm) Loc-Line (LP-41401, Lockwood Products, Lake Oswego, OR) articulated plastic tubing segments, and these were joined by a Y fitting (LP-41408) and threaded into a port with a coupler (LP-41406). The tip of each electrode assembly was fitted with a nozzle (Loc-Line, LP-41403) and a 7.62 cm segment of solid copper wire (10 Ga, Artistic Wire, Coatesville, PA) soldered to a length of braided electrical wire (16 Ga.) was threaded through the port in the feeding table and through each tube segment and nozzle until just the large-gauge copper wire was protruding from the nozzle. A drop of hot glue applied between this wire electrode and the nozzle tip prevented the wire from sliding into the nozzle. A central port (190.5 mm) was added to one of the short sides of each box (“front”), and through this opening all of the wires from the individual electrodes were routed (Figure 1, 2). An automotive 9-pin male/female quick-connect coupler (with one wire removed) was attached to the 8 electrode lead wires, with a unique color representing each electrode and station. The other end of the coupler was wired to a 3 m long bundle of 8 wires representing the different electrodes. Wire bundles were wrapped with electrical tape and cable sleeves. The wire bundles connected to each box (8 wires each) were wired directly to the analog input (AI) terminals of a single USB data acquisition instrument (USB-6210, National Instruments Corporation, Austin, TX), which was connected to a PC via USB port. A regulated DC power supply (Mastech HY3003D, Acifica, Inc., San Jose, CA) was set to deliver +5 VDC to a steel L bracket that was screwed into table surface to serve as a power connection to the copper screen through a wire (16 Ga) and alligator clip. This single common screen served as the sole power substrate for each station on each table.

Bottom Line: We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity.Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI).We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Horticulture, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive polyphagous agricultural and urban nuisance pest of Asian origin that is becoming widespread in North America and Europe. Despite the economic importance of pentatomid pests worldwide, their feeding behavior is poorly understood. Electronically monitored insect feeding (EMIF) technology is a useful tool in studies of feeding behavior of Hemiptera. Here we examined H. halys feeding behavior using an EMIF system designed for high throughput studies in environmental chambers. Our objectives were to quantify feeding activity by monitoring proboscis contacts with green beans, including labial dabbing and stylet penetration of the beans, which we collectively define as 'probes'. We examined frequency and duration of 'probes' in field-collected H. halys over 48 hours and we determined how environmental conditions could affect diel and seasonal periodicity of 'probing' activity. We found differences in 'probing' activity between months when the assays were conducted. These differences in activity may have reflected different environmental conditions, and they also coincide with what is known about the phenology of H. halys. While a substantial number of 'probes' occurred during scotophase, including some of the longest mean 'probe' durations, activity was either lower or similar to 'probing' activity levels during photophase on average. We found that temperature had a significant impact on H. halys 'probing' behavior and may influence periodicity of activity. Our data suggest that the minimal temperature at which 'probing' of H. halys occurs is between 3.5 and 6.1 °C (95% CI), and that 'probing' does not occur at temperatures above 26.5 to 29.6 °C (95% CI). We estimated that the optimal temperature for 'probing' is between 16 and 17 °C.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus