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Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea genome, transcriptome and secretome provides insight into its pioneer colonization strategies of wood.

Hori C, Ishida T, Igarashi K, Samejima M, Suzuki H, Master E, Ferreira P, Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Held B, Canessa P, Larrondo LF, Schmoll M, Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP, Gaskell JA, Kersten P, St John F, Glasner J, Sabat G, Splinter BonDurant S, Syed K, Yadav J, Mgbeahuruike AC, Kovalchuk A, Asiegbu FO, Lackner G, Hoffmeister D, Rencoret J, Gutiérrez A, Sun H, Lindquist E, Barry K, Riley R, Grigoriev IV, Henrissat B, Kües U, Berka RM, Martínez AT, Covert SF, Blanchette RA, Cullen D - PLoS Genet. (2014)

Bottom Line: Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism.These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on fresh-cut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genes involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

P. gigantea transcriptome.Scatterplot (A) shows the distribution of RNA-seq RPKM values (log2) for 11,376 P. gigantea genes when grown on basal salts containing acetone-extracted loblolly pine wood (ELP) or non-extracted loblolly pine wood (NELP). Lines define 2-fold borders and best fit regression. Darkened points represent 44 transcripts accumulating>4-fold at p<0.01. Venn diagram (B) illustrates genes with RPKM signals>10 and upregulated>4-fold in NELP relative to ELP. Twenty-two genes showed significant transcript accumulation in NELP relative to ELP suggesting potential response to resin and pitch content. Under these stringent thresholds (p<0.01;>4-fold), only one gene, a MCO model Phlgi1_129839, showed significant transcript accumulation in ELP relative to NELP. Additional detail appears in Tables 1-3. Detailed methods and complete data are presented in Text S1 and Dataset S2.
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pgen-1004759-g007: P. gigantea transcriptome.Scatterplot (A) shows the distribution of RNA-seq RPKM values (log2) for 11,376 P. gigantea genes when grown on basal salts containing acetone-extracted loblolly pine wood (ELP) or non-extracted loblolly pine wood (NELP). Lines define 2-fold borders and best fit regression. Darkened points represent 44 transcripts accumulating>4-fold at p<0.01. Venn diagram (B) illustrates genes with RPKM signals>10 and upregulated>4-fold in NELP relative to ELP. Twenty-two genes showed significant transcript accumulation in NELP relative to ELP suggesting potential response to resin and pitch content. Under these stringent thresholds (p<0.01;>4-fold), only one gene, a MCO model Phlgi1_129839, showed significant transcript accumulation in ELP relative to NELP. Additional detail appears in Tables 1-3. Detailed methods and complete data are presented in Text S1 and Dataset S2.

Mentions: To identify enzymes involved in tolerance to and/or degradation of extractives, comparisons were made of gene expression in ground loblolly pine wood that had been extensively extracted with acetone (ELP) versus non-extracted loblolly pine wood (NELP) (Figure 7A). In general, this treatment had little impact on gene expression. For example, glycoside hydrolase transcript and protein patterns showed only minor differences (Figure 8). Nevertheless, transcripts corresponding to 22 genes showed significantly increased levels (>4-fold; p<0.01) in NELP relative to ELP (Figure 7B; Table 2). Of particular interest were genes potentially involved in metabolism of resin acids (e.g. CYPs; [55]), in altering the accessibility of cell wall components (e.g., an endoxylanase), and in regulating gene expression (e.g. proteins containing putative Zn finger domains or HMG-Box transcription factors). Integration of transcript profiles of genes involved in intracellular lipid and oxalate metabolism, together with TCA and glyoxylate cycles, strongly supports a central role for β-oxidation in triglyceride and terpenoid transformation by P. gigantea (Figure 9).


Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea genome, transcriptome and secretome provides insight into its pioneer colonization strategies of wood.

Hori C, Ishida T, Igarashi K, Samejima M, Suzuki H, Master E, Ferreira P, Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Held B, Canessa P, Larrondo LF, Schmoll M, Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP, Gaskell JA, Kersten P, St John F, Glasner J, Sabat G, Splinter BonDurant S, Syed K, Yadav J, Mgbeahuruike AC, Kovalchuk A, Asiegbu FO, Lackner G, Hoffmeister D, Rencoret J, Gutiérrez A, Sun H, Lindquist E, Barry K, Riley R, Grigoriev IV, Henrissat B, Kües U, Berka RM, Martínez AT, Covert SF, Blanchette RA, Cullen D - PLoS Genet. (2014)

P. gigantea transcriptome.Scatterplot (A) shows the distribution of RNA-seq RPKM values (log2) for 11,376 P. gigantea genes when grown on basal salts containing acetone-extracted loblolly pine wood (ELP) or non-extracted loblolly pine wood (NELP). Lines define 2-fold borders and best fit regression. Darkened points represent 44 transcripts accumulating>4-fold at p<0.01. Venn diagram (B) illustrates genes with RPKM signals>10 and upregulated>4-fold in NELP relative to ELP. Twenty-two genes showed significant transcript accumulation in NELP relative to ELP suggesting potential response to resin and pitch content. Under these stringent thresholds (p<0.01;>4-fold), only one gene, a MCO model Phlgi1_129839, showed significant transcript accumulation in ELP relative to NELP. Additional detail appears in Tables 1-3. Detailed methods and complete data are presented in Text S1 and Dataset S2.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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pgen-1004759-g007: P. gigantea transcriptome.Scatterplot (A) shows the distribution of RNA-seq RPKM values (log2) for 11,376 P. gigantea genes when grown on basal salts containing acetone-extracted loblolly pine wood (ELP) or non-extracted loblolly pine wood (NELP). Lines define 2-fold borders and best fit regression. Darkened points represent 44 transcripts accumulating>4-fold at p<0.01. Venn diagram (B) illustrates genes with RPKM signals>10 and upregulated>4-fold in NELP relative to ELP. Twenty-two genes showed significant transcript accumulation in NELP relative to ELP suggesting potential response to resin and pitch content. Under these stringent thresholds (p<0.01;>4-fold), only one gene, a MCO model Phlgi1_129839, showed significant transcript accumulation in ELP relative to NELP. Additional detail appears in Tables 1-3. Detailed methods and complete data are presented in Text S1 and Dataset S2.
Mentions: To identify enzymes involved in tolerance to and/or degradation of extractives, comparisons were made of gene expression in ground loblolly pine wood that had been extensively extracted with acetone (ELP) versus non-extracted loblolly pine wood (NELP) (Figure 7A). In general, this treatment had little impact on gene expression. For example, glycoside hydrolase transcript and protein patterns showed only minor differences (Figure 8). Nevertheless, transcripts corresponding to 22 genes showed significantly increased levels (>4-fold; p<0.01) in NELP relative to ELP (Figure 7B; Table 2). Of particular interest were genes potentially involved in metabolism of resin acids (e.g. CYPs; [55]), in altering the accessibility of cell wall components (e.g., an endoxylanase), and in regulating gene expression (e.g. proteins containing putative Zn finger domains or HMG-Box transcription factors). Integration of transcript profiles of genes involved in intracellular lipid and oxalate metabolism, together with TCA and glyoxylate cycles, strongly supports a central role for β-oxidation in triglyceride and terpenoid transformation by P. gigantea (Figure 9).

Bottom Line: Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism.These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on fresh-cut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genes involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus