Limits...
Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea genome, transcriptome and secretome provides insight into its pioneer colonization strategies of wood.

Hori C, Ishida T, Igarashi K, Samejima M, Suzuki H, Master E, Ferreira P, Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Held B, Canessa P, Larrondo LF, Schmoll M, Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP, Gaskell JA, Kersten P, St John F, Glasner J, Sabat G, Splinter BonDurant S, Syed K, Yadav J, Mgbeahuruike AC, Kovalchuk A, Asiegbu FO, Lackner G, Hoffmeister D, Rencoret J, Gutiérrez A, Sun H, Lindquist E, Barry K, Riley R, Grigoriev IV, Henrissat B, Kües U, Berka RM, Martínez AT, Covert SF, Blanchette RA, Cullen D - PLoS Genet. (2014)

Bottom Line: Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism.These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on fresh-cut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genes involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representations of lignocellulose components in cell walls of pine wood.Panel A: The extractives (long chain fatty acids, triglycerides, resin acids and terpenes) are found primarily in the resin ducts, but damage to pine wood causes the release of these compounds across wounded areas. Panel B: In tracheid cell walls, the amorphous, phenylpropanoid polymer lignin (brown) form a matrix around the more structured carbohydrate polymers, hemicellulose (yellow and green) and cellulose (blue).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection


getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256170&req=5

pgen-1004759-g001: Schematic representations of lignocellulose components in cell walls of pine wood.Panel A: The extractives (long chain fatty acids, triglycerides, resin acids and terpenes) are found primarily in the resin ducts, but damage to pine wood causes the release of these compounds across wounded areas. Panel B: In tracheid cell walls, the amorphous, phenylpropanoid polymer lignin (brown) form a matrix around the more structured carbohydrate polymers, hemicellulose (yellow and green) and cellulose (blue).

Mentions: White-rot basidiomycetes may differ in their substrate preference and morphological patterns of decay (for review see [1], [2]). The majority of lignin-degrading fungi, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, are unable to colonize freshly cut wood unless inhibitory compounds (extractives) are removed or transformed [2]–[5]. A few basidiomycetes, including Phlebiopsis gigantea, are pioneer colonizers of softwood because they tolerate and utilize resinous extractives (e.g., resin acids, triglycerides, long chain fatty acids, see Figure 1) which cause pitch deposits in paper pulp manufacturing [6]. It is this unusual capability that also led to the development of P. gigantea as a biocontrol agent against subsequent colonization of cut stumps by the root rot pathogen Heterobasidium annosum sensu lato (now considered several species) [7], [8] and of harvested wood by blue stain fungi [9], [10]. It seems likely that when applied to freshly cut wood, P. gigantea is able to rapidly metabolize accessible extractives and hemicellulose. As the hyphae continue to invade tracheids and ray parenchyma cells, the more recalcitrant cell wall polymers (cellulose, lignin; Figure 1) are eroded. Little is known of how some white-rot fungi degrade conifer extractives [11], [12] or interact with other fungi such as H. annosum[13].


Analysis of the Phlebiopsis gigantea genome, transcriptome and secretome provides insight into its pioneer colonization strategies of wood.

Hori C, Ishida T, Igarashi K, Samejima M, Suzuki H, Master E, Ferreira P, Ruiz-Dueñas FJ, Held B, Canessa P, Larrondo LF, Schmoll M, Druzhinina IS, Kubicek CP, Gaskell JA, Kersten P, St John F, Glasner J, Sabat G, Splinter BonDurant S, Syed K, Yadav J, Mgbeahuruike AC, Kovalchuk A, Asiegbu FO, Lackner G, Hoffmeister D, Rencoret J, Gutiérrez A, Sun H, Lindquist E, Barry K, Riley R, Grigoriev IV, Henrissat B, Kües U, Berka RM, Martínez AT, Covert SF, Blanchette RA, Cullen D - PLoS Genet. (2014)

Schematic representations of lignocellulose components in cell walls of pine wood.Panel A: The extractives (long chain fatty acids, triglycerides, resin acids and terpenes) are found primarily in the resin ducts, but damage to pine wood causes the release of these compounds across wounded areas. Panel B: In tracheid cell walls, the amorphous, phenylpropanoid polymer lignin (brown) form a matrix around the more structured carbohydrate polymers, hemicellulose (yellow and green) and cellulose (blue).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256170&req=5

pgen-1004759-g001: Schematic representations of lignocellulose components in cell walls of pine wood.Panel A: The extractives (long chain fatty acids, triglycerides, resin acids and terpenes) are found primarily in the resin ducts, but damage to pine wood causes the release of these compounds across wounded areas. Panel B: In tracheid cell walls, the amorphous, phenylpropanoid polymer lignin (brown) form a matrix around the more structured carbohydrate polymers, hemicellulose (yellow and green) and cellulose (blue).
Mentions: White-rot basidiomycetes may differ in their substrate preference and morphological patterns of decay (for review see [1], [2]). The majority of lignin-degrading fungi, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Ceriporiopsis subvermispora, are unable to colonize freshly cut wood unless inhibitory compounds (extractives) are removed or transformed [2]–[5]. A few basidiomycetes, including Phlebiopsis gigantea, are pioneer colonizers of softwood because they tolerate and utilize resinous extractives (e.g., resin acids, triglycerides, long chain fatty acids, see Figure 1) which cause pitch deposits in paper pulp manufacturing [6]. It is this unusual capability that also led to the development of P. gigantea as a biocontrol agent against subsequent colonization of cut stumps by the root rot pathogen Heterobasidium annosum sensu lato (now considered several species) [7], [8] and of harvested wood by blue stain fungi [9], [10]. It seems likely that when applied to freshly cut wood, P. gigantea is able to rapidly metabolize accessible extractives and hemicellulose. As the hyphae continue to invade tracheids and ray parenchyma cells, the more recalcitrant cell wall polymers (cellulose, lignin; Figure 1) are eroded. Little is known of how some white-rot fungi degrade conifer extractives [11], [12] or interact with other fungi such as H. annosum[13].

Bottom Line: Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase.Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism.These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomaterials Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Collectively classified as white-rot fungi, certain basidiomycetes efficiently degrade the major structural polymers of wood cell walls. A small subset of these Agaricomycetes, exemplified by Phlebiopsis gigantea, is capable of colonizing freshly exposed conifer sapwood despite its high content of extractives, which retards the establishment of other fungal species. The mechanism(s) by which P. gigantea tolerates and metabolizes resinous compounds have not been explored. Here, we report the annotated P. gigantea genome and compare profiles of its transcriptome and secretome when cultured on fresh-cut versus solvent-extracted loblolly pine wood. The P. gigantea genome contains a conventional repertoire of hydrolase genes involved in cellulose/hemicellulose degradation, whose patterns of expression were relatively unperturbed by the absence of extractives. The expression of genes typically ascribed to lignin degradation was also largely unaffected. In contrast, genes likely involved in the transformation and detoxification of wood extractives were highly induced in its presence. Their products included an ABC transporter, lipases, cytochrome P450s, glutathione S-transferase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Other regulated genes of unknown function and several constitutively expressed genes are also likely involved in P. gigantea's extractives metabolism. These results contribute to our fundamental understanding of pioneer colonization of conifer wood and provide insight into the diverse chemistries employed by fungi in carbon cycling processes.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus