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Grip strength across the life course: normative data from twelve British studies.

Dodds RM, Syddall HE, Cooper R, Benzeval M, Deary IJ, Dennison EM, Der G, Gale CR, Inskip HM, Jagger C, Kirkwood TB, Lawlor DA, Robinson SM, Starr JM, Steptoe A, Tilling K, Kuh D, Cooper C, Sayer AA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain.Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards.Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol.

Methods: We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing).

Results: Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males' peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.

Conclusion: This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Gender-specific prevalence of weak grip strength based on T-scores of −2 and −2.5.Values shown in brackets are the gender-specific cut-off values calculated by subtracting the relevant number of standard deviations (2 or 2.5) from the young adult peak mean.
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pone-0113637-g002: Gender-specific prevalence of weak grip strength based on T-scores of −2 and −2.5.Values shown in brackets are the gender-specific cut-off values calculated by subtracting the relevant number of standard deviations (2 or 2.5) from the young adult peak mean.

Mentions: Estimated prevalence of weak grip strength in mid and late adult life, defined by gender-specific T-scores of less than or equal to −2 and −2.5, are shown in Figure 2. These were derived relative to the peak mean (SD) for grip strength of 51.9 (9.9) kg in males and 31.4 (6.1) kg in females, both occurring at age 32. Females and males had similar prevalence of weak grip strength during the decline phase. The prevalence of weak grip increased rapidly in late adult life; using a T-score of −2.5, our results suggested that by age 80, around a quarter had weak grip strength (23.0% of males and 26.6% of females).


Grip strength across the life course: normative data from twelve British studies.

Dodds RM, Syddall HE, Cooper R, Benzeval M, Deary IJ, Dennison EM, Der G, Gale CR, Inskip HM, Jagger C, Kirkwood TB, Lawlor DA, Robinson SM, Starr JM, Steptoe A, Tilling K, Kuh D, Cooper C, Sayer AA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Gender-specific prevalence of weak grip strength based on T-scores of −2 and −2.5.Values shown in brackets are the gender-specific cut-off values calculated by subtracting the relevant number of standard deviations (2 or 2.5) from the young adult peak mean.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4256164&req=5

pone-0113637-g002: Gender-specific prevalence of weak grip strength based on T-scores of −2 and −2.5.Values shown in brackets are the gender-specific cut-off values calculated by subtracting the relevant number of standard deviations (2 or 2.5) from the young adult peak mean.
Mentions: Estimated prevalence of weak grip strength in mid and late adult life, defined by gender-specific T-scores of less than or equal to −2 and −2.5, are shown in Figure 2. These were derived relative to the peak mean (SD) for grip strength of 51.9 (9.9) kg in males and 31.4 (6.1) kg in females, both occurring at age 32. Females and males had similar prevalence of weak grip strength during the decline phase. The prevalence of weak grip increased rapidly in late adult life; using a T-score of −2.5, our results suggested that by age 80, around a quarter had weak grip strength (23.0% of males and 26.6% of females).

Bottom Line: We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain.Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards.Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Epidemiological studies have shown that weaker grip strength in later life is associated with disability, morbidity, and mortality. Grip strength is a key component of the sarcopenia and frailty phenotypes and yet it is unclear how individual measurements should be interpreted. Our objective was to produce cross-sectional centile values for grip strength across the life course. A secondary objective was to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol.

Methods: We combined 60,803 observations from 49,964 participants (26,687 female) of 12 general population studies in Great Britain. We produced centile curves for ages 4 to 90 and investigated the prevalence of weak grip, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean. We carried out a series of sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of dynamometer type and measurement position (seated or standing).

Results: Our results suggested three overall periods: an increase to peak in early adult life, maintenance through to midlife, and decline from midlife onwards. Males were on average stronger than females from adolescence onwards: males' peak median grip was 51 kg between ages 29 and 39, compared to 31 kg in females between ages 26 and 42. Weak grip strength, defined as strength at least 2.5 SDs below the gender-specific peak mean, increased sharply with age, reaching a prevalence of 23% in males and 27% in females by age 80. Sensitivity analyses suggested our findings were robust to differences in dynamometer type and measurement position.

Conclusion: This is the first study to provide normative data for grip strength across the life course. These centile values have the potential to inform the clinical assessment of grip strength which is recognised as an important part of the identification of people with sarcopenia and frailty.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus