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Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

Raphael KA, Shearman DC, Gilchrist AS, Sved JA, Morrow JL, Sherwin WB, Riegler M, Frommer M - BMC Genet. (2014)

Bottom Line: Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline.Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment.More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies.

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ABSTRACT
Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies.

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The distributions of B. tryoni, B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi in Australia. (a) The distribution of B. neohumeralis is entirely within the broader distribution of B. tryoni. The ovals show the populations of B. tryoni that are differentiated by microsatellite analyses. Grey shading is the FFEZ (the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone). Top right, B. tryoni, bottom right, B. neohumeralis. (b) The distribution of B. jarvisi and, inset, the distribution of its native host the Cocky apple (Planchonia careya). Top right, B. jarvisi.
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Figure 1: The distributions of B. tryoni, B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi in Australia. (a) The distribution of B. neohumeralis is entirely within the broader distribution of B. tryoni. The ovals show the populations of B. tryoni that are differentiated by microsatellite analyses. Grey shading is the FFEZ (the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone). Top right, B. tryoni, bottom right, B. neohumeralis. (b) The distribution of B. jarvisi and, inset, the distribution of its native host the Cocky apple (Planchonia careya). Top right, B. jarvisi.

Mentions: The family Tephritidae includes some of the most significant pests of horticulture in the world. Among tephritid fruit flies endemic to Australia, the sibling species, Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly, Qfly) and Bactrocera neohumeralis (lesser Queensland fruit fly), have both been serious pests since the establishment of horticulture in Australia in the nineteenth century. Both species are polyphagous, infesting a very broad range of cultivated fruits and vegetables [1]. However, B. tryoni is considered the more serious pest because, in contrast to B. neohumeralis, it is highly invasive and has followed the spread of horticulture through eastern Australia [2], including into drier and cooler areas beyond its native habitat (Figure 1a). More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has been declared a pest in northern Australia [3], although this species has a narrower host range [1]. Its distribution largely follows that of its native host, the Cocky apple (Planchonia careya), but within this region it will infest cultivated mango and guava [4] (Figure 1b).


Australian endemic pest tephritids: genetic, molecular and microbial tools for improved Sterile Insect Technique.

Raphael KA, Shearman DC, Gilchrist AS, Sved JA, Morrow JL, Sherwin WB, Riegler M, Frommer M - BMC Genet. (2014)

The distributions of B. tryoni, B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi in Australia. (a) The distribution of B. neohumeralis is entirely within the broader distribution of B. tryoni. The ovals show the populations of B. tryoni that are differentiated by microsatellite analyses. Grey shading is the FFEZ (the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone). Top right, B. tryoni, bottom right, B. neohumeralis. (b) The distribution of B. jarvisi and, inset, the distribution of its native host the Cocky apple (Planchonia careya). Top right, B. jarvisi.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4255846&req=5

Figure 1: The distributions of B. tryoni, B. neohumeralis and B. jarvisi in Australia. (a) The distribution of B. neohumeralis is entirely within the broader distribution of B. tryoni. The ovals show the populations of B. tryoni that are differentiated by microsatellite analyses. Grey shading is the FFEZ (the Fruit Fly Exclusion Zone). Top right, B. tryoni, bottom right, B. neohumeralis. (b) The distribution of B. jarvisi and, inset, the distribution of its native host the Cocky apple (Planchonia careya). Top right, B. jarvisi.
Mentions: The family Tephritidae includes some of the most significant pests of horticulture in the world. Among tephritid fruit flies endemic to Australia, the sibling species, Bactrocera tryoni (Queensland fruit fly, Qfly) and Bactrocera neohumeralis (lesser Queensland fruit fly), have both been serious pests since the establishment of horticulture in Australia in the nineteenth century. Both species are polyphagous, infesting a very broad range of cultivated fruits and vegetables [1]. However, B. tryoni is considered the more serious pest because, in contrast to B. neohumeralis, it is highly invasive and has followed the spread of horticulture through eastern Australia [2], including into drier and cooler areas beyond its native habitat (Figure 1a). More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has been declared a pest in northern Australia [3], although this species has a narrower host range [1]. Its distribution largely follows that of its native host, the Cocky apple (Planchonia careya), but within this region it will infest cultivated mango and guava [4] (Figure 1b).

Bottom Line: Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline.Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment.More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT
Among Australian endemic tephritid fruit flies, the sibling species Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera neohumeralis have been serious horticultural pests since the introduction of horticulture in the nineteenth century. More recently, Bactrocera jarvisi has also been declared a pest in northern Australia. After several decades of genetic research there is now a range of classical and molecular genetic tools that can be used to develop improved Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) strains for control of these pests. Four-way crossing strategies have the potential to overcome the problem of inbreeding in mass-reared strains of B. tryoni. The ability to produce hybrids between B. tryoni and the other two species in the laboratory has proved useful for the development of genetically marked strains. The identification of Y-chromosome markers in B. jarvisi means that male and female embryos can be distinguished in any strain that carries a B. jarvisi Y chromosome. This has enabled the study of homologues of the sex-determination genes during development of B jarvisi and B. tryoni, which is necessary for the generation of genetic-sexing strains. Germ-line transformation has been established and a draft genome sequence for B. tryoni released. Transcriptomes from various species, tissues and developmental stages, to aid in identification of manipulation targets for improving SIT, have been assembled and are in the pipeline. Broad analyses of the microbiome have revealed a metagenome that is highly variable within and across species and defined by the environment. More specific analyses detected Wolbachia at low prevalence in the tropics but absent in temperate regions, suggesting a possible role for this endosymbiont in future control strategies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus