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Surgical travellers: tapestry to Bayeux.

Hedley-Whyte J, Milamed DR - Ulster Med J (2014)

Bottom Line: Kenner.King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service.The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant Surgeons was of great value to the Allies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: David S. Sheridan Professorship in Anaesthesia and Respiratory Therapy Harvard University, 1400 VFW Parkway Boston, MA 02132-4927 USA.

ABSTRACT
The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant Surgeons was of great value to the Allies.

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Sir Ian Fraser (1901-1999), oil on linen, 91.5 x 76.2 cm, by Carol Graham, 1994. Reproduced with permission of Queen's University, Belfast, solely for this Medical History. Sir Ian's father, Dr. Robert Fraser, was a single-handed General Practitioner in Belfast. Ian's mother, Margaret, died in 1903. Ian won a scholarship to his father's old school Inst in 1913. Ian began his medical career as a student at Queen's in 1918; for the next eighty years he led a full and distinguished life. He was created D.S.O. in January 1944 for his legendary war surgery and for his penicillin work with Lord Florey and Dr. Norman Heatley5–7. An Oxford DSc followed, as did heroic surgery near Bayeux. The three months after D-Day the Second Battalion of The Royal Ulster Rifles were just to Fraser's east. From the Normandy beaches to the capture of nearby Caen, this combat cost the Second Battalion 400 killed or seriously wounded 8.By the end of July 1944 and the Ste. Lo breakout, the First Battalion of the Royal Ulster Rifles had suffered 488 casulaties. On D-Day 864 men of the First Battalion had landed by parachute glider or boat8.
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fig01: Sir Ian Fraser (1901-1999), oil on linen, 91.5 x 76.2 cm, by Carol Graham, 1994. Reproduced with permission of Queen's University, Belfast, solely for this Medical History. Sir Ian's father, Dr. Robert Fraser, was a single-handed General Practitioner in Belfast. Ian's mother, Margaret, died in 1903. Ian won a scholarship to his father's old school Inst in 1913. Ian began his medical career as a student at Queen's in 1918; for the next eighty years he led a full and distinguished life. He was created D.S.O. in January 1944 for his legendary war surgery and for his penicillin work with Lord Florey and Dr. Norman Heatley5–7. An Oxford DSc followed, as did heroic surgery near Bayeux. The three months after D-Day the Second Battalion of The Royal Ulster Rifles were just to Fraser's east. From the Normandy beaches to the capture of nearby Caen, this combat cost the Second Battalion 400 killed or seriously wounded 8.By the end of July 1944 and the Ste. Lo breakout, the First Battalion of the Royal Ulster Rifles had suffered 488 casulaties. On D-Day 864 men of the First Battalion had landed by parachute glider or boat8.

Mentions: The planning of surgical response to Nazi aggression began in 1938 both in the Royal College of Surgeons of England and in the Surgical Travellers Club1–3. In 1938, the year of Chamberlain's “Peace in our time” speech, the Army Blood Transfusion Service was established under the direction of Lionel Whitby1–4. During the March 1938 visit of the Surgical Travellers to Vienna at the start of Anschluss, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were moved, despite their protests, out of the Hotel Bristol, as von Papen had taken over the entire hotel (Fig.1). From Vienna, the Frasers bussed down to Budapest. Here the displaced Travellers agreed to meet on Tuesday, 7 March and Wednesday, 8 March 1939 in Dublin, followed by three days of meetings and dinners in Belfast, before leaving from Ulster on the morning of Sunday, 12 March 19399. Ian Fraser was to be host and the fifteen consultant surgeons would plan for the inevitable war3.


Surgical travellers: tapestry to Bayeux.

Hedley-Whyte J, Milamed DR - Ulster Med J (2014)

Sir Ian Fraser (1901-1999), oil on linen, 91.5 x 76.2 cm, by Carol Graham, 1994. Reproduced with permission of Queen's University, Belfast, solely for this Medical History. Sir Ian's father, Dr. Robert Fraser, was a single-handed General Practitioner in Belfast. Ian's mother, Margaret, died in 1903. Ian won a scholarship to his father's old school Inst in 1913. Ian began his medical career as a student at Queen's in 1918; for the next eighty years he led a full and distinguished life. He was created D.S.O. in January 1944 for his legendary war surgery and for his penicillin work with Lord Florey and Dr. Norman Heatley5–7. An Oxford DSc followed, as did heroic surgery near Bayeux. The three months after D-Day the Second Battalion of The Royal Ulster Rifles were just to Fraser's east. From the Normandy beaches to the capture of nearby Caen, this combat cost the Second Battalion 400 killed or seriously wounded 8.By the end of July 1944 and the Ste. Lo breakout, the First Battalion of the Royal Ulster Rifles had suffered 488 casulaties. On D-Day 864 men of the First Battalion had landed by parachute glider or boat8.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4255837&req=5

fig01: Sir Ian Fraser (1901-1999), oil on linen, 91.5 x 76.2 cm, by Carol Graham, 1994. Reproduced with permission of Queen's University, Belfast, solely for this Medical History. Sir Ian's father, Dr. Robert Fraser, was a single-handed General Practitioner in Belfast. Ian's mother, Margaret, died in 1903. Ian won a scholarship to his father's old school Inst in 1913. Ian began his medical career as a student at Queen's in 1918; for the next eighty years he led a full and distinguished life. He was created D.S.O. in January 1944 for his legendary war surgery and for his penicillin work with Lord Florey and Dr. Norman Heatley5–7. An Oxford DSc followed, as did heroic surgery near Bayeux. The three months after D-Day the Second Battalion of The Royal Ulster Rifles were just to Fraser's east. From the Normandy beaches to the capture of nearby Caen, this combat cost the Second Battalion 400 killed or seriously wounded 8.By the end of July 1944 and the Ste. Lo breakout, the First Battalion of the Royal Ulster Rifles had suffered 488 casulaties. On D-Day 864 men of the First Battalion had landed by parachute glider or boat8.
Mentions: The planning of surgical response to Nazi aggression began in 1938 both in the Royal College of Surgeons of England and in the Surgical Travellers Club1–3. In 1938, the year of Chamberlain's “Peace in our time” speech, the Army Blood Transfusion Service was established under the direction of Lionel Whitby1–4. During the March 1938 visit of the Surgical Travellers to Vienna at the start of Anschluss, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were moved, despite their protests, out of the Hotel Bristol, as von Papen had taken over the entire hotel (Fig.1). From Vienna, the Frasers bussed down to Budapest. Here the displaced Travellers agreed to meet on Tuesday, 7 March and Wednesday, 8 March 1939 in Dublin, followed by three days of meetings and dinners in Belfast, before leaving from Ulster on the morning of Sunday, 12 March 19399. Ian Fraser was to be host and the fifteen consultant surgeons would plan for the inevitable war3.

Bottom Line: Kenner.King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service.The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant Surgeons was of great value to the Allies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: David S. Sheridan Professorship in Anaesthesia and Respiratory Therapy Harvard University, 1400 VFW Parkway Boston, MA 02132-4927 USA.

ABSTRACT
The planning for surgery in war was revisited in 1937 when Ian Fraser was elected a member of the Surgical Travellers. At their 1938 Surgical Travellers meeting in Vienna, Ian and Eleanor Fraser were evicted from their hotel room by the Nazis. The 1939 meeting in Belfast discussed the organization of surgery and the conduct of Emergency Medical Service Hospitals in the United Kingdom; the vast majority were to be under civilian government and military control. From 1943 lengthy and informative organizational meetings were held at least monthly under the chairmanship of Sir Alexander Hood, KBE, Head of the RAMC. Surgical Consultants, now Major Generals, Brigadiers or Full Colonels in the British and U.S. Armies stationed in the UK, prepared for the invasion of Europe. The allocation of medical, surgical, nursing and auxiliary responsibilities was delineated. Liaison with the RAF and US Army Air Force was close as it was with the proposed leaders, Ulstermen Brooke and Montgomery. Montgomery chose Arthur Porritt as Surgeon in Chief to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), and Eisenhower, General Albert W. Kenner. Just after D-Day, Porritt met Ian Fraser, who had waded in on Arromanches Beach. The triage and evacuation plans for Allied casualties had been controversial, particularly as regards Landing Ship Tanks (LSTs). The dispute with the Hood-selected surgeons on one side, against medical and surgical deployment of LSTs, and Admiral Ernest King and Winston Churchill on the other, favouring LST use for surgery and evacuation. King and Churchill were correct but total Allied air superiority allowed wide use of many of the Allies' Dakotas; 10,000 DC-3s were eventually in service. Supported by forty Allied combat planes to each Luftwaffe, the dispute about Landing Ship Tank use in about a fortnight became moot. The multifaceted role of the Princess Royal in the Emergency Medical Services of the United Kingdom and her close liaison with the Consultant Surgeons was of great value to the Allies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus