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Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

Bain R, Cronk R, Hossain R, Bonjour S, Onda K, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Hunter P, Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J - Trop. Med. Int. Health (2014)

Bottom Line: Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates.Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%).Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Water Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

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Proportion of the population exposed to faecally contaminated drinking water from improved sources or with access only to unimproved sources by region and globally for 2012. FIB: faecal indicator bacteria; HI: high income; LMI: low or middle income; Am: Americas; EasMed: Eastern Mediterranean; Euro: Europe; SEA: South-East Asia; West_Pac: western Pacific. Confidence intervals do not account for uncertainty in the relationship between presence (≥1 per 100 ml) and levels of contamination (≥10 per 100 ml) nor do they account for uncertainty in estimation from surveys and censuses.]
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fig03: Proportion of the population exposed to faecally contaminated drinking water from improved sources or with access only to unimproved sources by region and globally for 2012. FIB: faecal indicator bacteria; HI: high income; LMI: low or middle income; Am: Americas; EasMed: Eastern Mediterranean; Euro: Europe; SEA: South-East Asia; West_Pac: western Pacific. Confidence intervals do not account for uncertainty in the relationship between presence (≥1 per 100 ml) and levels of contamination (≥10 per 100 ml) nor do they account for uncertainty in estimation from surveys and censuses.]

Mentions: By combining the water quality data (Table 5) and coverage data (Table 2), we estimate exposure to faecal contamination by region and globally in Figure 3. Corresponding estimates for moderate to high levels of E. coli or TTC (>10 FIB per 100 ml) were determined using the relationship between presence and level of FIB illustrated in Figure 2.


Global assessment of exposure to faecal contamination through drinking water based on a systematic review.

Bain R, Cronk R, Hossain R, Bonjour S, Onda K, Wright J, Yang H, Slaymaker T, Hunter P, Prüss-Ustün A, Bartram J - Trop. Med. Int. Health (2014)

Proportion of the population exposed to faecally contaminated drinking water from improved sources or with access only to unimproved sources by region and globally for 2012. FIB: faecal indicator bacteria; HI: high income; LMI: low or middle income; Am: Americas; EasMed: Eastern Mediterranean; Euro: Europe; SEA: South-East Asia; West_Pac: western Pacific. Confidence intervals do not account for uncertainty in the relationship between presence (≥1 per 100 ml) and levels of contamination (≥10 per 100 ml) nor do they account for uncertainty in estimation from surveys and censuses.]
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4255778&req=5

fig03: Proportion of the population exposed to faecally contaminated drinking water from improved sources or with access only to unimproved sources by region and globally for 2012. FIB: faecal indicator bacteria; HI: high income; LMI: low or middle income; Am: Americas; EasMed: Eastern Mediterranean; Euro: Europe; SEA: South-East Asia; West_Pac: western Pacific. Confidence intervals do not account for uncertainty in the relationship between presence (≥1 per 100 ml) and levels of contamination (≥10 per 100 ml) nor do they account for uncertainty in estimation from surveys and censuses.]
Mentions: By combining the water quality data (Table 5) and coverage data (Table 2), we estimate exposure to faecal contamination by region and globally in Figure 3. Corresponding estimates for moderate to high levels of E. coli or TTC (>10 FIB per 100 ml) were determined using the relationship between presence and level of FIB illustrated in Figure 2.

Bottom Line: Predictive models for the presence and level of contamination of drinking water sources were developed using random effects logistic regression and selected covariates.Drinking water is found to be more often contaminated in rural areas (41%, CI: 31%-51%) than in urban areas (12%, CI: 8-18%), and contamination is most prevalent in Africa (53%, CI: 42%-63%) and South-East Asia (35%, CI: 24%-45%).Global burden of disease estimates may have substantially understated the disease burden associated with inadequate water services.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: The Water Institute, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus