Comparative genomics and transcriptomics analyses reveal divergent lifestyle features of nematode endoparasitic fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis.
Bottom Line: Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota).Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi.Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism.
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.Show MeSH
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Mentions: GO terms and Pfam domains were used to assign genes to functional categories and group the genes by parasitic dynamics using the K-Means clustering algorithm. Eight main clusters (fig. 5A, clusters 1–8) accounted for about 93% of the differentially expressed genes in the four stages. Most of the blue bins showed enrichment for particular clusters of gene expression (fig. 5B). Genes that encode proteins involved in translation, cytoplasm, respiration activity, hydrolase activity, proteasome, transmembrane transport, lipid metabolism, and organic substance transport are greatly enriched in clusters 1 and 2, representing genes that are expressed at the highest levels at the spore adhesion stage. High expression of genes responsible for the proteasome and hydrolase activity indicated their important role in cuticle degradation. Genes that showed peak expression during the period when fungal mycelium growth within the nematode body included those that are required for phospholipid metabolism, macromolecular metabolism, amino acid metabolism, protein degradation, serine-type peptidase activity, and secondary metabolism, suggesting that the fungal transcriptome undergoes detoxification in host body, degrades nematode protein substrates, and involves nutrient uptake.Fig. 5.—
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.