Comparative genomics and transcriptomics analyses reveal divergent lifestyle features of nematode endoparasitic fungus Hirsutella minnesotensis.
Bottom Line: Its genome was de novo sequenced and compared with five entomopathogenic fungi in the Hypocreales and three nematode-trapping fungi in the Orbiliales (Ascomycota).Those results indicate that H. minnesotensis has evolved different mechanism for nematode endoparasitism compared with nematode-trapping fungi.Genome and transcriptome analyses provided comprehensive understanding of the evolution and lifestyle of nematode endoparasitism.
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Nematophagous fungi are a diverse group of carnivorous fungal species that use their specific mycelia structures or conidia to capture the vermiform nematodes, or use their hypha tips to parasitize the eggs and cysts of nematodes, or produce toxins to attack nematodes (Liu et al. 2009). Two main groups of nematophagous fungi are known as nematode-trapping fungi invading nematode by producing specific trapping devices, and nematode endoparasitic fungi invading nematode by using adhesive or digesting conidia. Hirsutella minnesotensis (Ophiocordycipitaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota) is the representative of nematode endoparasitic fungi. This species mainly invades the secondary stage juveniles of cyst nematodes by producing conidia that adhere to, penetrate cuticle, and eventually kill the nematode (fig. 1). The fungus consumes the nematode body content and finally grows out from the cadaver to produce new conidia for the next infection cycle (Sturhan and Schneider 1980; Liu and Chen 2000).Fig. 1.—
Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.