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Parenteral nutrition-associated liver injury and increased GRP94 expression prevented by ω-3 fish oil-based lipid emulsion supplementation.

Zhu X, Xiao Z, Chen X, Li Y, Zhang X, Xu Y, Feng X, Wang J - J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (2014)

Bottom Line: Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the messenger RNA levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in liver tissues and GRP94 protein levels were compared through immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays.TPN-soy animals had significantly higher serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and lower serum albumin than the controls (P < 0.01, each) or the TPN-FO group, which were similar to the controls (P < 0.01 cf.TPN).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: *Department of Neonatology †Institute of Pediatric Research ‡Department of Neonatology Surgery, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Parenteral nutrition in infants with gastrointestinal disorders can be lifesaving, but it is also associated with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. We investigated the effects of incorporating ω-3 fish oil in a parenteral nutrition mixture on signs of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and explored the mechanism involved in this process.

Methods: Seven-day-old New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 8, and for 1 week they were infused via the right jugular vein with standard total parenteral nutrition with soybean oil (TPN-soy) or TPN with ω-3 fish oil-based lipid emulsion (TPN-FO), or naturally nursed with rabbit milk (control). Serum and liver tissues were analyzed for serological indicators and pathology, respectively. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the messenger RNA levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in liver tissues and GRP94 protein levels were compared through immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays.

Results: TPN-soy animals had significantly higher serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and lower serum albumin than the controls (P < 0.01, each) or the TPN-FO group, which were similar to the controls (P < 0.01 cf. TPN). Damage to liver tissues of the TPN-FO group was much less than that of the TPN-soy group. GRP94 messenger RNA and protein levels in liver tissues of TPN-soy animals were significantly higher than that of the controls or TPN-FO rabbits, which were similar to the controls.

Conclusions: Incorporating ω-3 fish oil in parenteral nutrition emulsion greatly prevented liver dysfunction and liver tissue damage in week-old rabbit kits, possibly by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Representative histologic images of liver tissues. A, Control; B, TPN-soy group; C, TPN-FO group. Original magnification ×400. TPN = total parenteral nutrition; TPN-FO = TPN with ω-3 fish oil; TPN-soy = TPN with soybean oil.
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Figure 1: Representative histologic images of liver tissues. A, Control; B, TPN-soy group; C, TPN-FO group. Original magnification ×400. TPN = total parenteral nutrition; TPN-FO = TPN with ω-3 fish oil; TPN-soy = TPN with soybean oil.

Mentions: Histological examination of the liver tissues obtained from the 3 experimental groups revealed that those of the control rabbits appeared normal, with intact hepatocytes (Fig. 1A) and without any signs of hepatocyte degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cholangiectasis, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, or cholestasis. In the liver tissues of the TPN-soy group, inflammatory cell infiltration, diffuse hepatic steatosis, and disrupted hepatic cord structure were, however, evident (Fig. 1B), but there was no cholestasis or liver fibrosis, and the hepatic lobule was still visible. In the TPN-FO group, only mild hepatic steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were found (Fig. 1C); the morphology of hepatocytes was normal, and there was no cholangiectasis, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, or cholestasis.


Parenteral nutrition-associated liver injury and increased GRP94 expression prevented by ω-3 fish oil-based lipid emulsion supplementation.

Zhu X, Xiao Z, Chen X, Li Y, Zhang X, Xu Y, Feng X, Wang J - J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (2014)

Representative histologic images of liver tissues. A, Control; B, TPN-soy group; C, TPN-FO group. Original magnification ×400. TPN = total parenteral nutrition; TPN-FO = TPN with ω-3 fish oil; TPN-soy = TPN with soybean oil.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4255760&req=5

Figure 1: Representative histologic images of liver tissues. A, Control; B, TPN-soy group; C, TPN-FO group. Original magnification ×400. TPN = total parenteral nutrition; TPN-FO = TPN with ω-3 fish oil; TPN-soy = TPN with soybean oil.
Mentions: Histological examination of the liver tissues obtained from the 3 experimental groups revealed that those of the control rabbits appeared normal, with intact hepatocytes (Fig. 1A) and without any signs of hepatocyte degeneration, necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cholangiectasis, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, or cholestasis. In the liver tissues of the TPN-soy group, inflammatory cell infiltration, diffuse hepatic steatosis, and disrupted hepatic cord structure were, however, evident (Fig. 1B), but there was no cholestasis or liver fibrosis, and the hepatic lobule was still visible. In the TPN-FO group, only mild hepatic steatosis and inflammatory cell infiltration were found (Fig. 1C); the morphology of hepatocytes was normal, and there was no cholangiectasis, bile duct epithelial hyperplasia, or cholestasis.

Bottom Line: Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the messenger RNA levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in liver tissues and GRP94 protein levels were compared through immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays.TPN-soy animals had significantly higher serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and lower serum albumin than the controls (P < 0.01, each) or the TPN-FO group, which were similar to the controls (P < 0.01 cf.TPN).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: *Department of Neonatology †Institute of Pediatric Research ‡Department of Neonatology Surgery, Children's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, China.

ABSTRACT

Objective: Parenteral nutrition in infants with gastrointestinal disorders can be lifesaving, but it is also associated with parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease. We investigated the effects of incorporating ω-3 fish oil in a parenteral nutrition mixture on signs of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease and explored the mechanism involved in this process.

Methods: Seven-day-old New Zealand rabbits were divided into 3 groups of 8, and for 1 week they were infused via the right jugular vein with standard total parenteral nutrition with soybean oil (TPN-soy) or TPN with ω-3 fish oil-based lipid emulsion (TPN-FO), or naturally nursed with rabbit milk (control). Serum and liver tissues were analyzed for serological indicators and pathology, respectively. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to evaluate the messenger RNA levels of the endoplasmic reticulum stress chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) in liver tissues and GRP94 protein levels were compared through immunohistochemistry and Western blot assays.

Results: TPN-soy animals had significantly higher serum total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase and lower serum albumin than the controls (P < 0.01, each) or the TPN-FO group, which were similar to the controls (P < 0.01 cf. TPN). Damage to liver tissues of the TPN-FO group was much less than that of the TPN-soy group. GRP94 messenger RNA and protein levels in liver tissues of TPN-soy animals were significantly higher than that of the controls or TPN-FO rabbits, which were similar to the controls.

Conclusions: Incorporating ω-3 fish oil in parenteral nutrition emulsion greatly prevented liver dysfunction and liver tissue damage in week-old rabbit kits, possibly by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus