Multigeneration impacts on Daphnia magna of carbon nanomaterials with differing core structures and functionalizations.
Bottom Line: Several classes of contaminants have been shown to have multigenerational impacts once a parental generation has been exposed.Certain nanomaterials, however, such as C60-malonate, SWCNTs, SWCNT-CONH2 , and MWCNTs, caused a significant decrease in either survival or reproduction in F1 daphnids; and SWCNT-CONH2 decreased reproduction out to the F2 generation.Impacts of nanomaterials on F1 and F2 size were small and lacked clear patterns, indicating that CNMs have minimal multigenerational impacts on size.
Affiliation: School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Some functionalized fullerenes had significant impacts on F1 and F2 reproduction. Although 10 ppm C60 had no significant impact on multigenerational reproduction, reproduction in F1 was significantly decreased by 5 ppm C60-malonate (decrease of 9%, t = 2.361, p < 0.05) and increased by 10 ppm C60-βCD (increase of 22%, t = 4.863, p < 0.05; Figure 5A). However, these effects were not found in the F2 generation (Figure 5B). In addition, impacts of 10 ppm C60-βCD on increased reproduction were not significantly different from those of 10 ppm C60, indicating that the attachment of βCD to C60 does not change the impacts of unfunctionalized fullerenes on F1 reproduction. Finally, 50 ppm C60-OH decreased F1 reproduction by 12% (t = −3.608, p < 0.05) and increased F2 reproduction by 10% (t = 2.336, p < 0.05).
Affiliation: School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.