Multigeneration impacts on Daphnia magna of carbon nanomaterials with differing core structures and functionalizations.
Bottom Line: Several classes of contaminants have been shown to have multigenerational impacts once a parental generation has been exposed.Certain nanomaterials, however, such as C60-malonate, SWCNTs, SWCNT-CONH2 , and MWCNTs, caused a significant decrease in either survival or reproduction in F1 daphnids; and SWCNT-CONH2 decreased reproduction out to the F2 generation.Impacts of nanomaterials on F1 and F2 size were small and lacked clear patterns, indicating that CNMs have minimal multigenerational impacts on size.
Affiliation: School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Multigenerational effects on survival were observed for some CNM treatments in F1 daphnid generations (Figure 2). Of the unfunctionalized nanoparticle types, MWCNTs decreased the survival rate of F1 daphnids, compared with controls (77.2% survival, U = 27, p < 0.05) (Figure 2A). Although unfunctionalized C60 did not significantly impact survival, some types of surface chemistries were found to increase the toxicity of C60 to Daphnia. This includes 10 ppm C60-βCD (84% survival, U = 18, p < 0.05) and 5 ppm C60-malonate (64% survival, U = 18, p < 0.05) (Figure 2B). None of these treatments decreased survival of F0 daphnids in our previous experiment; however, MWCNTs at the higher 50 ppm concentration were found to decrease F0 survival .
Affiliation: School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.