Burden of disease from inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene in low- and middle-income settings: a retrospective analysis of data from 145 countries.
Bottom Line: In total, 842,000 diarrhoea deaths are estimated to be caused by this cluster of risk factors, which amounts to 1.5% of the total disease burden and 58% of diarrhoeal diseases.This estimate confirms the importance of improving water and sanitation in low- and middle-income settings for the prevention of diarrhoeal disease burden.It also underscores the need for better data on exposure and risk reductions that can be achieved with provision of reliable piped water, community sewage with treatment and hand hygiene.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The exposure levels for inadequate drinking water, used in this analysis, along with additional levels of exposure to water with improved quality or quantity that are not currently supported by sufficient epidemiological evidence, are shown in Figure 1. This approach can accommodate further exposure levels when supported by sufficient evidence. The exposure–risk relationships (taken from Wolf et al. 2014) are summarised in Table 2.
Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Environment, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.