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Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

Tranquilli S, Abedi-Lartey M, Abernethy K, Amsini F, Asamoah A, Balangtaa C, Blake S, Bouanga E, Breuer T, Brncic TM, Campbell G, Chancellor R, Chapman CA, Davenport TR, Dunn A, Dupain J, Ekobo A, Eno-Nku M, Etoga G, Furuichi T, Gatti S, Ghiurghi A, Hashimoto C, Hart JA, Head J, Hega M, Herbinger I, Hicks TC, Holbech LH, Huijbregts B, Kühl HS, Imong I, Yeno SL, Linder J, Marshall P, Lero PM, Morgan D, Mubalama L, N'Goran PK, Nicholas A, Nixon S, Normand E, Nziguyimpa L, Nzooh-Dongmo Z, Ofori-Amanfo R, Ogunjemite BG, Petre CA, Rainey HJ, Regnaut S, Robinson O, Rundus A, Sanz CM, Okon DT, Todd A, Warren Y, Sommer V - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa.We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels.Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Anthropology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

Show MeSH
Threats impact levels to 98 tropical African protected areas at a continental and regional scale.Clockwise from top: Africa (a), Central Africa (b), East Africa (c) and West Africa (d).
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pone-0114154-g003: Threats impact levels to 98 tropical African protected areas at a continental and regional scale.Clockwise from top: Africa (a), Central Africa (b), East Africa (c) and West Africa (d).

Mentions: Among the threats at impact level 3 across tropical Africa, hunting was the most common for 56% of all PAs (Fig. 3a). However, little difference was found between subsistence and commercial hunting (42% and 41% of sites, respectively). Agriculture and logging were the most common indirect threats with rank at level 3 in 48% and 45% of all the sites, respectively. Human settlements within and bordering PAs had also high impact on wildlife for 31% and 41% of the areas (Fig. 3a).


Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

Tranquilli S, Abedi-Lartey M, Abernethy K, Amsini F, Asamoah A, Balangtaa C, Blake S, Bouanga E, Breuer T, Brncic TM, Campbell G, Chancellor R, Chapman CA, Davenport TR, Dunn A, Dupain J, Ekobo A, Eno-Nku M, Etoga G, Furuichi T, Gatti S, Ghiurghi A, Hashimoto C, Hart JA, Head J, Hega M, Herbinger I, Hicks TC, Holbech LH, Huijbregts B, Kühl HS, Imong I, Yeno SL, Linder J, Marshall P, Lero PM, Morgan D, Mubalama L, N'Goran PK, Nicholas A, Nixon S, Normand E, Nziguyimpa L, Nzooh-Dongmo Z, Ofori-Amanfo R, Ogunjemite BG, Petre CA, Rainey HJ, Regnaut S, Robinson O, Rundus A, Sanz CM, Okon DT, Todd A, Warren Y, Sommer V - PLoS ONE (2014)

Threats impact levels to 98 tropical African protected areas at a continental and regional scale.Clockwise from top: Africa (a), Central Africa (b), East Africa (c) and West Africa (d).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4254933&req=5

pone-0114154-g003: Threats impact levels to 98 tropical African protected areas at a continental and regional scale.Clockwise from top: Africa (a), Central Africa (b), East Africa (c) and West Africa (d).
Mentions: Among the threats at impact level 3 across tropical Africa, hunting was the most common for 56% of all PAs (Fig. 3a). However, little difference was found between subsistence and commercial hunting (42% and 41% of sites, respectively). Agriculture and logging were the most common indirect threats with rank at level 3 in 48% and 45% of all the sites, respectively. Human settlements within and bordering PAs had also high impact on wildlife for 31% and 41% of the areas (Fig. 3a).

Bottom Line: Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa.We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels.Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Anthropology, University College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

Show MeSH