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Chagas' disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The caracas valley (Venezuela) as an epidemiological model.

Urdaneta-Morales S - Front Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities.I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants.Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for the Biology of Vectors and Parasites, Tropical Zoology and Ecology Institute, Central University of Venezuela , Caracas , Venezuela.

ABSTRACT
The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Amastigotes and intermediate stages (arrows) of Trypanosoma cruzi in (A,B) perifery cytoplasm of an adipocye; (C) cytoplasm of immature adipocite (preadipocite); (D) intercellular substance in connective adipose tissue; (E) parasitized macrophage located between uninfected adipocytes (H-E; 1400×).
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Figure 5: Amastigotes and intermediate stages (arrows) of Trypanosoma cruzi in (A,B) perifery cytoplasm of an adipocye; (C) cytoplasm of immature adipocite (preadipocite); (D) intercellular substance in connective adipose tissue; (E) parasitized macrophage located between uninfected adipocytes (H-E; 1400×).

Mentions: Xenotransplantations have demonstrated zoonotic infections produced by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and helminths, thus showing their importance as risk factors for these diseases (20). Using a mouse model, the possibility of the transfer of T. cruzi was determined in organs often used during these procedures. Isolates from D. marsupialis and R. rattus captured in Caracas were inoculated in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue, observing the intracellular presence of the parasite in all cases (39–41) (Figures 5–7). This constitutes an alternative transmission pathway, whereby natural T. cruzi intracellular multiplication could be enhanced in immunosuppressed hosts. Isolates of T. cruzi stages found in the eye tissue of mice produced an electrophoretic band pattern that identified the parasite as TcI (ZI).


Chagas' disease: an emergent urban zoonosis. The caracas valley (Venezuela) as an epidemiological model.

Urdaneta-Morales S - Front Public Health (2014)

Amastigotes and intermediate stages (arrows) of Trypanosoma cruzi in (A,B) perifery cytoplasm of an adipocye; (C) cytoplasm of immature adipocite (preadipocite); (D) intercellular substance in connective adipose tissue; (E) parasitized macrophage located between uninfected adipocytes (H-E; 1400×).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4252636&req=5

Figure 5: Amastigotes and intermediate stages (arrows) of Trypanosoma cruzi in (A,B) perifery cytoplasm of an adipocye; (C) cytoplasm of immature adipocite (preadipocite); (D) intercellular substance in connective adipose tissue; (E) parasitized macrophage located between uninfected adipocytes (H-E; 1400×).
Mentions: Xenotransplantations have demonstrated zoonotic infections produced by viruses, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, and helminths, thus showing their importance as risk factors for these diseases (20). Using a mouse model, the possibility of the transfer of T. cruzi was determined in organs often used during these procedures. Isolates from D. marsupialis and R. rattus captured in Caracas were inoculated in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue, observing the intracellular presence of the parasite in all cases (39–41) (Figures 5–7). This constitutes an alternative transmission pathway, whereby natural T. cruzi intracellular multiplication could be enhanced in immunosuppressed hosts. Isolates of T. cruzi stages found in the eye tissue of mice produced an electrophoretic band pattern that identified the parasite as TcI (ZI).

Bottom Line: The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities.I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants.Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for the Biology of Vectors and Parasites, Tropical Zoology and Ecology Institute, Central University of Venezuela , Caracas , Venezuela.

ABSTRACT
The unprecedented emergence of important public health and veterinary zoonoses is usually a result of exponential population growth and globalization of human activities. I characterized Chagas' disease as an emergent zoonosis in the Caracas Valley (Venezuela) due to the following findings: the presence of reservoirs (Didelphis marsupialis, Rattus rattus) and vectors (Panstrongylus geniculatus, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi in urbanized or marginalized areas; the elevated contact between P. geniculatus and human beings detected by parasitological and molecular examinations of triatomine feces demonstrated the possibility of transmission risks; a study of outbreaks of urban Chagas' disease reported the first proven case of oral transmission of T. cruzi to human beings; the risk of transmission of glandular metacyclic stages from marsupials by experimental ocular and oral instillation; mice genitalia infected with T. cruzi contaminated blood resulted in the formation of amastigotes very close to the lumen suggesting that there may be a possibility of infection via their release into the urine and thence to the exterior; the ubiquitous histotropism and histopathology of T. cruzi was demonstrated using a mouse model; the presence of experimental T. cruzi pseudocysts in adipose, bone-cartilage, and eye tissue indicated a potential risk for transplants. Socio-sanitary programs that include improvements in housing, vector control, and access to medical treatment, as well as strategies aimed at combating social inequalities, poverty, and underdevelopment should be undertaken in those areas where zoonoses are most prevalent. Disciplines, such as Ecology, Epidemiology, Medical Entomology, Human and Veterinary Medicine, Environmental Studies, Public Health, Social and Political Studies, Immunology, Microbiology, and Pharmacology could all provide important contributions that aim to reduce the occurrence of factors governing the spread of emergent diseases.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus