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Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

Schulze J, Frauenknecht T, Brodmann P, Bagutti C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port.We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species.GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Laboratory Basel-City, Biosafety Laboratory, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

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Sample locations in the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station.Locations of plant samples taken in the Rhine port of Basel (A) and the St. Johann freight railway station (B) are denoted with circles. Locations where genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (OSR) was found are framed and enlarged. GT73 OSR was found in a previous study at locations 1, 2 (Rhine port) and 6 (St. Johann station). Seed cargo is regularly handled at locations 1, 2, 4 and 5.
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pone-0114477-g001: Sample locations in the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station.Locations of plant samples taken in the Rhine port of Basel (A) and the St. Johann freight railway station (B) are denoted with circles. Locations where genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (OSR) was found are framed and enlarged. GT73 OSR was found in a previous study at locations 1, 2 (Rhine port) and 6 (St. Johann station). Seed cargo is regularly handled at locations 1, 2, 4 and 5.

Mentions: OSR seeds have no primary dormancy and may germinate throughout the growing season if conditions are suitable [21], [22]. Therefore, sampling was carried out in intervals of four to five weeks from spring to autumn. In the Rhine port of Basel, plants were sampled on seven dates in 2013. Samplings 1 to 7 were carried out on April 22nd, May 28th, July 2nd, July 29th, September 2nd, October 7th and November 4th, respectively. An extra sampling in a limited area was carried out on June 18th due to the finding of RF3 OSR in an embankment (Fig. 1A, location 5). The St. Johann station was sampled on six dates in 2013. Samplings 1 to 6 were conducted on April 25th, June 3rd, July 8th, August 13th, September 10th and October 14th. The St. Johann station was not sampled in November due to the low numbers of plants found in September and October. Plant sampling did not require specific permissions and we did not sample any protected or endangered species.


Unexpected diversity of feral genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) despite a cultivation and import ban in Switzerland.

Schulze J, Frauenknecht T, Brodmann P, Bagutti C - PLoS ONE (2014)

Sample locations in the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station.Locations of plant samples taken in the Rhine port of Basel (A) and the St. Johann freight railway station (B) are denoted with circles. Locations where genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (OSR) was found are framed and enlarged. GT73 OSR was found in a previous study at locations 1, 2 (Rhine port) and 6 (St. Johann station). Seed cargo is regularly handled at locations 1, 2, 4 and 5.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4252112&req=5

pone-0114477-g001: Sample locations in the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station.Locations of plant samples taken in the Rhine port of Basel (A) and the St. Johann freight railway station (B) are denoted with circles. Locations where genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (OSR) was found are framed and enlarged. GT73 OSR was found in a previous study at locations 1, 2 (Rhine port) and 6 (St. Johann station). Seed cargo is regularly handled at locations 1, 2, 4 and 5.
Mentions: OSR seeds have no primary dormancy and may germinate throughout the growing season if conditions are suitable [21], [22]. Therefore, sampling was carried out in intervals of four to five weeks from spring to autumn. In the Rhine port of Basel, plants were sampled on seven dates in 2013. Samplings 1 to 7 were carried out on April 22nd, May 28th, July 2nd, July 29th, September 2nd, October 7th and November 4th, respectively. An extra sampling in a limited area was carried out on June 18th due to the finding of RF3 OSR in an embankment (Fig. 1A, location 5). The St. Johann station was sampled on six dates in 2013. Samplings 1 to 6 were conducted on April 25th, June 3rd, July 8th, August 13th, September 10th and October 14th. The St. Johann station was not sampled in November due to the low numbers of plants found in September and October. Plant sampling did not require specific permissions and we did not sample any protected or endangered species.

Bottom Line: Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port.We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species.GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Laboratory Basel-City, Biosafety Laboratory, Basel, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
Despite cultivation and seed import bans of genetically modified (GM) oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.), feral GM plants were found growing along railway lines and in port areas at four sites in Switzerland in 2011 and 2012. All GM plants were identified as glyphosate-resistant GM event GT73 (Roundup Ready, Monsanto). The most affected sites were the Rhine port of Basel and the St. Johann freight railway station in Basel. To assess the distribution and intra- and interspecific outcrossing of GM oilseed rape in more detail, we monitored these two sites in 2013. Leaves and seed pods of feral oilseed rape plants, their possible hybridization partners and putative hybrid plants were sampled in monthly intervals and analysed for the presence of transgenes by real-time PCR. Using flow cytometry, we measured DNA contents of cell nuclei to confirm putative hybrids. In total, 2787 plants were sampled. The presence of GT73 oilseed rape could be confirmed at all previously documented sampling locations and was additionally detected at one new sampling location within the Rhine port. Furthermore, we found the glufosinate-resistant GM events MS8xRF3, MS8 and RF3 (all traded as InVigor, Bayer) at five sampling locations in the Rhine port. To our knowledge, this is the first time that feral MS8xRF3, MS8 or RF3 plants were detected in Europe. Real-time PCR analyses of seeds showed outcrossing of GT73 into two non-GM oilseed rape plants, but no outcrossing of transgenes into related wild species was observed. We found no hybrids between oilseed rape and related species. GM plants most frequently occurred at unloading sites for ships, indicating that ship cargo traffic is the main entry pathway for GM oilseed rape. In the future, it will be of major interest to determine the source of GM oilseed rape seeds.

Show MeSH