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Biotransformation and chemotaxis of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN.

Arora PK, Bae H - Microb. Cell Fact. (2014)

Bottom Line: It was observed that strain JHN decolourized and biotransformed 4C2NP up to concentration of 0.6 mM.Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as a major metabolite of the co-metabolism of 4C2NP.Furthermore, strain JHN exhibits positive chemotaxis toward 4C2NP based on the drop plate and capillary assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, Republic of Korea. arora484@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Pseudomonas sp. JHN decolourized and biotransformed 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) in the presence of additional carbon source. The effect of the various concentrations of the 4C2NP was studied on the decolourization of 4C2NP by Pseudomonas sp. JHN. It was observed that strain JHN decolourized and biotransformed 4C2NP up to concentration of 0.6 mM. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as a major metabolite of the co-metabolism of 4C2NP. Furthermore, strain JHN exhibits positive chemotaxis toward 4C2NP based on the drop plate and capillary assays. This is the first report of the chemotaxis toward 4C2NP by any bacterium.

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Gas chromatography profiles of the samples collected at 0 h (a), 12 h (b) and 16 h (c) during the transformation of 4C2NP into 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole byPseudomonassp.JHN.
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Fig3: Gas chromatography profiles of the samples collected at 0 h (a), 12 h (b) and 16 h (c) during the transformation of 4C2NP into 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole byPseudomonassp.JHN.

Mentions: GC results confirmed the complete depletion of 4C2NP with appearance of single metabolite (Figure 3). In the sample of the 0 h, only 4C2NP was detected. In the sample of 12 h, one peak of metabolite was appeared with a peak of parent compound. In the 16 h, the peak of 4C2NP was completely disappeared whereas the peak of metabolite was present. This data suggests that 4C2NP was completely transformed to metabolite. To identify the metabolite, GC-MS was carried out. The mass fragment of the metabolite that was observed at 167 m/z was subjected to the library search. NIST mass spectral library match showed that mass fragment of metabolite was exactly matched with to that of the 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole (Figure 4). On the basis of the GC-MS, the transformation product was identified as 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole. Previous studies have also been showed the formation of 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole from 4C2NP by two Bacillus species [4,5]. The mechanism of formation of 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole has also been studied in Bacillus sp. MW-1 and Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700. Both of the Bacillus spp. initially reduced to 4C2NP into 4-chloro-2-aminophenol that was further acetylated to 4-chloro-2-acetaminophenol [4,5]. 4-Chloro-2-acetaminophenol produced 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole after cyclation. In the case of Pseudomonas sp. JHN, we could not detected 4-chloro-2-aminophenol and 4-chloro-2-acetaminophenol as biotransformation product due to the rapid transformation of 4C2NP to 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole (Figure 5).Figure 3


Biotransformation and chemotaxis of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol by Pseudomonas sp. JHN.

Arora PK, Bae H - Microb. Cell Fact. (2014)

Gas chromatography profiles of the samples collected at 0 h (a), 12 h (b) and 16 h (c) during the transformation of 4C2NP into 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole byPseudomonassp.JHN.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4252026&req=5

Fig3: Gas chromatography profiles of the samples collected at 0 h (a), 12 h (b) and 16 h (c) during the transformation of 4C2NP into 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole byPseudomonassp.JHN.
Mentions: GC results confirmed the complete depletion of 4C2NP with appearance of single metabolite (Figure 3). In the sample of the 0 h, only 4C2NP was detected. In the sample of 12 h, one peak of metabolite was appeared with a peak of parent compound. In the 16 h, the peak of 4C2NP was completely disappeared whereas the peak of metabolite was present. This data suggests that 4C2NP was completely transformed to metabolite. To identify the metabolite, GC-MS was carried out. The mass fragment of the metabolite that was observed at 167 m/z was subjected to the library search. NIST mass spectral library match showed that mass fragment of metabolite was exactly matched with to that of the 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole (Figure 4). On the basis of the GC-MS, the transformation product was identified as 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole. Previous studies have also been showed the formation of 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole from 4C2NP by two Bacillus species [4,5]. The mechanism of formation of 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole has also been studied in Bacillus sp. MW-1 and Bacillus subtilis RKJ 700. Both of the Bacillus spp. initially reduced to 4C2NP into 4-chloro-2-aminophenol that was further acetylated to 4-chloro-2-acetaminophenol [4,5]. 4-Chloro-2-acetaminophenol produced 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole after cyclation. In the case of Pseudomonas sp. JHN, we could not detected 4-chloro-2-aminophenol and 4-chloro-2-acetaminophenol as biotransformation product due to the rapid transformation of 4C2NP to 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole (Figure 5).Figure 3

Bottom Line: It was observed that strain JHN decolourized and biotransformed 4C2NP up to concentration of 0.6 mM.Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as a major metabolite of the co-metabolism of 4C2NP.Furthermore, strain JHN exhibits positive chemotaxis toward 4C2NP based on the drop plate and capillary assays.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749, Republic of Korea. arora484@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Pseudomonas sp. JHN decolourized and biotransformed 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) in the presence of additional carbon source. The effect of the various concentrations of the 4C2NP was studied on the decolourization of 4C2NP by Pseudomonas sp. JHN. It was observed that strain JHN decolourized and biotransformed 4C2NP up to concentration of 0.6 mM. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 5-chloro-2-methylbenzoxazole as a major metabolite of the co-metabolism of 4C2NP. Furthermore, strain JHN exhibits positive chemotaxis toward 4C2NP based on the drop plate and capillary assays. This is the first report of the chemotaxis toward 4C2NP by any bacterium.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus