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Purpurogallin, a natural phenol, attenuates high-mobility group box 1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced vasospasm in a rat model.

Chang CZ, Lin CL, Wu SC, Kwan AL - Int J Vasc Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression.Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels.In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan ; Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan ; Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) expression on 24 hr after first SAH and 72 hr after second SAH, respectively (Western blot). (A) SAH; (B) SAH + vehicle; (C) 100 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; (D) 200 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; and (E) 400 ug/kg/day purpurogallin in SAH rats. Purpurogallin tended to decrease HMGB1 expression in 48 hr after the induction of SAH. By the end of second SAH, purpurogallin dose-dependently attenuated HMGB1 protein expression. ∗, ∗∗P < 0.01, experimental animals compared with the SAH group. #, ##, ###P > 0.05, compared with the animals subject to SAH.
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fig3: High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) expression on 24 hr after first SAH and 72 hr after second SAH, respectively (Western blot). (A) SAH; (B) SAH + vehicle; (C) 100 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; (D) 200 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; and (E) 400 ug/kg/day purpurogallin in SAH rats. Purpurogallin tended to decrease HMGB1 expression in 48 hr after the induction of SAH. By the end of second SAH, purpurogallin dose-dependently attenuated HMGB1 protein expression. ∗, ∗∗P < 0.01, experimental animals compared with the SAH group. #, ##, ###P > 0.05, compared with the animals subject to SAH.

Mentions: HMGB1 was demonstrated to play a critical role in the onset of delayed and systemic inflammation. The expression of HMGB1 protein was not significantly difference among the experimental groups at 48 hr after the induction of SAH (Figure 3, left column, P > 0.05). In this study, purpurogallin (at medium and high doses) reduced the expression of HMGB1 protein at 72 hr after second SAH, when compared with the SAH group (Figure 3, right column, P < 0.01).


Purpurogallin, a natural phenol, attenuates high-mobility group box 1 in subarachnoid hemorrhage induced vasospasm in a rat model.

Chang CZ, Lin CL, Wu SC, Kwan AL - Int J Vasc Med (2014)

High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) expression on 24 hr after first SAH and 72 hr after second SAH, respectively (Western blot). (A) SAH; (B) SAH + vehicle; (C) 100 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; (D) 200 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; and (E) 400 ug/kg/day purpurogallin in SAH rats. Purpurogallin tended to decrease HMGB1 expression in 48 hr after the induction of SAH. By the end of second SAH, purpurogallin dose-dependently attenuated HMGB1 protein expression. ∗, ∗∗P < 0.01, experimental animals compared with the SAH group. #, ##, ###P > 0.05, compared with the animals subject to SAH.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4251792&req=5

fig3: High-mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) expression on 24 hr after first SAH and 72 hr after second SAH, respectively (Western blot). (A) SAH; (B) SAH + vehicle; (C) 100 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; (D) 200 ug/kg/day purpurogallin + SAH; and (E) 400 ug/kg/day purpurogallin in SAH rats. Purpurogallin tended to decrease HMGB1 expression in 48 hr after the induction of SAH. By the end of second SAH, purpurogallin dose-dependently attenuated HMGB1 protein expression. ∗, ∗∗P < 0.01, experimental animals compared with the SAH group. #, ##, ###P > 0.05, compared with the animals subject to SAH.
Mentions: HMGB1 was demonstrated to play a critical role in the onset of delayed and systemic inflammation. The expression of HMGB1 protein was not significantly difference among the experimental groups at 48 hr after the induction of SAH (Figure 3, left column, P > 0.05). In this study, purpurogallin (at medium and high doses) reduced the expression of HMGB1 protein at 72 hr after second SAH, when compared with the SAH group (Figure 3, right column, P < 0.01).

Bottom Line: Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression.Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels.In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan ; Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan ; Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan.

ABSTRACT
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was shown to be an important extracellular mediator involved in vascular inflammation of animals following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is of interest to examine the efficacy of purpurogallin, a natural phenol, on the alternation of cytokines and HMGB1 in a SAH model. A rodent double hemorrhage SAH model was employed. Basilar arteries (BAs) were harvested to examine HMGB1 mRNA and protein expression (Western blot). CSF samples were to examine IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α (rt-PCR). Deformed endothelial wall, tortuous elastic lamina, and necrotic smooth muscle were observed in the vessels of SAH groups but were absent in the purpurogallin group. IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups were significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Purpurgallin dose-dependently reduced HMGB1 protein expression. Likewise, high dose purpurogallin reduced TNF-α and HMGB1 mRNA levels. In conclusion, purpurogallin exerts its neuroinflammation effect through the dual effect of inhibiting IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression and reducing HMGB1 protein and mRNA expression. This study supports purpurogallin could attenuate both proinflammatory cytokines and late-onset inflammasome in SAH induced vasospasm.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus