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Long-term effects of musical training and functional plasticity in salience system.

Luo C, Tu S, Peng Y, Gao S, Li J, Dong L, Li G, Lai Y, Li H, Yao D - Neural Plast. (2014)

Bottom Line: Compared with nonmusicians, musicians exhibited significantly greater local functional connectivity density in 10 regions, including the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and anterior temporoparietal junction.Additionally, musicians had significantly greater functional integration in this system, especially for connections to the left insula.The salience system may represent a new avenue for exploration regarding the underlying foundations of enhanced higher-level cognitive processes in musicians.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
Musicians undergoing long-term musical training show improved emotional and cognitive function, which suggests the presence of neuroplasticity. The structural and functional impacts of the human brain have been observed in musicians. In this study, we used data-driven functional connectivity analysis to map local and distant functional connectivity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 28 professional musicians and 28 nonmusicians. Compared with nonmusicians, musicians exhibited significantly greater local functional connectivity density in 10 regions, including the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and anterior temporoparietal junction. A distant functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that most of these regions were included in salience system, which is associated with high-level cognitive control and fundamental attentional process. Additionally, musicians had significantly greater functional integration in this system, especially for connections to the left insula. Increased functional connectivity between the left insula and right temporoparietal junction may be a response to long-term musical training. Our findings indicate that the improvement of salience network is involved in musical training. The salience system may represent a new avenue for exploration regarding the underlying foundations of enhanced higher-level cognitive processes in musicians.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The mean local FCD maps across all subjects for 9 Tc thresholds.
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fig2: The mean local FCD maps across all subjects for 9 Tc thresholds.

Mentions: Because “Tc = 0.6” is often chosen as a threshold when determining local FCD [20, 21], we first calculated the averaged distribution of the local FCD for “Tc = 0.6” in the two groups (musicians and nonmusicians; see Figure 1). We found the highest local FCD in the bilateral cuneus, precuneus, inferior occipital gyrus, cingulate cortex, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, thalamus, and putamen. These findings were consistent with previous studies [20, 21]. Figure 2 shows the mean local FCD maps across all participants (musicians and nonmusicians) for every Tc threshold. For almost all Tc thresholds, we found the highest local FCD in the bilateral visual cortex, cuneus, and the medial prefrontal cortex. The patterns of local FCD were similar across Tc thresholds, although the size of the regions grew smaller as the Tc threshold increased.


Long-term effects of musical training and functional plasticity in salience system.

Luo C, Tu S, Peng Y, Gao S, Li J, Dong L, Li G, Lai Y, Li H, Yao D - Neural Plast. (2014)

The mean local FCD maps across all subjects for 9 Tc thresholds.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4247966&req=5

fig2: The mean local FCD maps across all subjects for 9 Tc thresholds.
Mentions: Because “Tc = 0.6” is often chosen as a threshold when determining local FCD [20, 21], we first calculated the averaged distribution of the local FCD for “Tc = 0.6” in the two groups (musicians and nonmusicians; see Figure 1). We found the highest local FCD in the bilateral cuneus, precuneus, inferior occipital gyrus, cingulate cortex, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, cerebellum, thalamus, and putamen. These findings were consistent with previous studies [20, 21]. Figure 2 shows the mean local FCD maps across all participants (musicians and nonmusicians) for every Tc threshold. For almost all Tc thresholds, we found the highest local FCD in the bilateral visual cortex, cuneus, and the medial prefrontal cortex. The patterns of local FCD were similar across Tc thresholds, although the size of the regions grew smaller as the Tc threshold increased.

Bottom Line: Compared with nonmusicians, musicians exhibited significantly greater local functional connectivity density in 10 regions, including the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and anterior temporoparietal junction.Additionally, musicians had significantly greater functional integration in this system, especially for connections to the left insula.The salience system may represent a new avenue for exploration regarding the underlying foundations of enhanced higher-level cognitive processes in musicians.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

ABSTRACT
Musicians undergoing long-term musical training show improved emotional and cognitive function, which suggests the presence of neuroplasticity. The structural and functional impacts of the human brain have been observed in musicians. In this study, we used data-driven functional connectivity analysis to map local and distant functional connectivity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 28 professional musicians and 28 nonmusicians. Compared with nonmusicians, musicians exhibited significantly greater local functional connectivity density in 10 regions, including the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and anterior temporoparietal junction. A distant functional connectivity analysis demonstrated that most of these regions were included in salience system, which is associated with high-level cognitive control and fundamental attentional process. Additionally, musicians had significantly greater functional integration in this system, especially for connections to the left insula. Increased functional connectivity between the left insula and right temporoparietal junction may be a response to long-term musical training. Our findings indicate that the improvement of salience network is involved in musical training. The salience system may represent a new avenue for exploration regarding the underlying foundations of enhanced higher-level cognitive processes in musicians.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus