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Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention.

Hernández J, Benedito JL, Abuelo A, Castillo C - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons.In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence.Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Optical forms of lactate: L(+) and D(−) lactate. The sign (−) is because the molecule makes polarized light turn left (levorotatory lactic acid); the opposite for the (+) sign (dextrorotatory lactic acid).
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fig1: Optical forms of lactate: L(+) and D(−) lactate. The sign (−) is because the molecule makes polarized light turn left (levorotatory lactic acid); the opposite for the (+) sign (dextrorotatory lactic acid).

Mentions: In relation to lactic acid, also called hydroxypropanoic acid, it was discovered by Scheele in 1870, who isolated the lactic acid from sour milk as an impure brown syrup and gave it a name based on its origins. Lactic acid has two optical forms, L(+) and D(−), and there is often a marked difference in the effects of two enantiomers on living beings, although stereoisomers have similar physical and chemical properties (Figure 1).


Ruminal acidosis in feedlot: from aetiology to prevention.

Hernández J, Benedito JL, Abuelo A, Castillo C - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Optical forms of lactate: L(+) and D(−) lactate. The sign (−) is because the molecule makes polarized light turn left (levorotatory lactic acid); the opposite for the (+) sign (dextrorotatory lactic acid).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4247954&req=5

fig1: Optical forms of lactate: L(+) and D(−) lactate. The sign (−) is because the molecule makes polarized light turn left (levorotatory lactic acid); the opposite for the (+) sign (dextrorotatory lactic acid).
Mentions: In relation to lactic acid, also called hydroxypropanoic acid, it was discovered by Scheele in 1870, who isolated the lactic acid from sour milk as an impure brown syrup and gave it a name based on its origins. Lactic acid has two optical forms, L(+) and D(−), and there is often a marked difference in the effects of two enantiomers on living beings, although stereoisomers have similar physical and chemical properties (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons.In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence.Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Santiago de Compostela, Campus Universitario, 27002 Lugo, Spain.

ABSTRACT
Acute ruminal acidosis is a metabolic status defined by decreased blood pH and bicarbonate, caused by overproduction of ruminal D-lactate. It will appear when animals ingest excessive amount of nonstructural carbohydrates with low neutral detergent fiber. Animals will show ruminal hypotony/atony with hydrorumen and a typical parakeratosis-rumenitis liver abscess complex, associated with a plethora of systemic manifestations such as diarrhea and dehydration, liver abscesses, infections of the lung, the heart, and/or the kidney, and laminitis, as well as neurologic symptoms due to both cerebrocortical necrosis and the direct effect of D-lactate on neurons. In feedlots, warning signs include decrease in chewing activity, weight, and dry matter intake and increase in laminitis and diarrhea prevalence. The prognosis is quite variable. Treatment will be based on the control of systemic acidosis and dehydration. Prevention is the most important tool and will require normalization of ruminal pH and microbiota. Appropriate feeding strategies are essential and involve changing the dietary composition to increase neutral detergent fiber content and greater particle size and length. Appropriate grain processing can control the fermentation rate while additives such as prebiotics or probiotics can help to stabilize the ruminal environment. Immunization against producers of D-lactate is being explored.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus