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Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

Jay-Russell MT, Hake AF, Bengson Y, Thiptara A, Nguyen T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields.Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella.These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Western Center for Food Safety, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area.

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Escherichia coli (XbaI restriction) pulsotypes of 18 aEPEC isolates and 2 non-pathogenicirulent E. coli O145:H11 isolates from dog and coyote fecal samples in the southwest desert produce growing areas of Arizona, California, and northern Mexico, November 3, 2010 through May 5, 2011.A human clinical E. coli O145:H28 outbreak strain associated with a Romaine lettuce-related outbreak traced to Arizona in May 2010 is also shown.
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pone-0113433-g002: Escherichia coli (XbaI restriction) pulsotypes of 18 aEPEC isolates and 2 non-pathogenicirulent E. coli O145:H11 isolates from dog and coyote fecal samples in the southwest desert produce growing areas of Arizona, California, and northern Mexico, November 3, 2010 through May 5, 2011.A human clinical E. coli O145:H28 outbreak strain associated with a Romaine lettuce-related outbreak traced to Arizona in May 2010 is also shown.

Mentions: A total of 17 pulsotypes (PT) were found among 18 aEPEC strains from dogs and coyote feces (Figure 2). Two non-pathogenic E. coli O145:H11 isolates were included in the dendogram for comparison with the E. coli O145:H28 human clinical strain (PT-8) associated with the 2010 outbreak linked to Romaine lettuce. Of note, E. coli O145 strains isolated from dog feces during the study had different H types (O145:H11 and O145:H34) and were genetically unrelated to the 2010 outbreak strain based on PFGE analysis (Table 4, Figure 2).


Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

Jay-Russell MT, Hake AF, Bengson Y, Thiptara A, Nguyen T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Escherichia coli (XbaI restriction) pulsotypes of 18 aEPEC isolates and 2 non-pathogenicirulent E. coli O145:H11 isolates from dog and coyote fecal samples in the southwest desert produce growing areas of Arizona, California, and northern Mexico, November 3, 2010 through May 5, 2011.A human clinical E. coli O145:H28 outbreak strain associated with a Romaine lettuce-related outbreak traced to Arizona in May 2010 is also shown.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4239069&req=5

pone-0113433-g002: Escherichia coli (XbaI restriction) pulsotypes of 18 aEPEC isolates and 2 non-pathogenicirulent E. coli O145:H11 isolates from dog and coyote fecal samples in the southwest desert produce growing areas of Arizona, California, and northern Mexico, November 3, 2010 through May 5, 2011.A human clinical E. coli O145:H28 outbreak strain associated with a Romaine lettuce-related outbreak traced to Arizona in May 2010 is also shown.
Mentions: A total of 17 pulsotypes (PT) were found among 18 aEPEC strains from dogs and coyote feces (Figure 2). Two non-pathogenic E. coli O145:H11 isolates were included in the dendogram for comparison with the E. coli O145:H28 human clinical strain (PT-8) associated with the 2010 outbreak linked to Romaine lettuce. Of note, E. coli O145 strains isolated from dog feces during the study had different H types (O145:H11 and O145:H34) and were genetically unrelated to the 2010 outbreak strain based on PFGE analysis (Table 4, Figure 2).

Bottom Line: According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields.Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella.These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Western Center for Food Safety, University of California Davis, Davis, California, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS) followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6%) dog and 5 (4.9%) coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2%) dog and 33 (32%) coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2%) of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1%) of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the produce production area.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus