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Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

Franklin KM, Hauser SR, Bell RL, Engleman EA - J Addict Res Ther (2013)

Bottom Line: Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others.However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior.Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Psychiatric Research, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

ABSTRACT
Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Average daily fluid intake (ml/kg) over 2 weeks of 1-hour/day limited access drinking sessions by adult female P rats (n = 18–30/group). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. water; + indicates p < 0.05 vs. 0.3 mg/ml caffeine; # indicates p < 0.05 vs. 15% v/v ethanol.
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Figure 2: Average daily fluid intake (ml/kg) over 2 weeks of 1-hour/day limited access drinking sessions by adult female P rats (n = 18–30/group). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. water; + indicates p < 0.05 vs. 0.3 mg/ml caffeine; # indicates p < 0.05 vs. 15% v/v ethanol.

Mentions: Findings that alcoholics and individuals with increased vulnerability for developing AUDs also consume more caffeine confirm a need to investigate whether alcohol and caffeine co-consumption increases alcohol intake and/or increases the likelihood of developing AUDs (e.g. [97]). Young people, in particular, have exhibited an attraction for consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages, and often engage in binge drinking this combination. An extensive literature highlights the deleterious effects, both peripherally and centrally, of binge alcohol-drinking [86]. Given that the addition of caffeine to alcoholic beverages appears to exacerbate binge-drinking, it is absolutely necessary that research into the acute and long-term effects of this combination be undertaken immediately. Following our previous findings that P rats consume more caffeine than do Wistar rats (Figure 1), as well as existing research detailing differences in ethanol intake between the two rat lines [58], our laboratory sought to examine levels of caffeinated ethanol intake in a controlled basic research environment. To that end, female P rats were assessed for intake of a caffeinated alcoholic solution, or one of its component ingredients: water, 0.3 mg/ml caffeine, or 15% ethanol over a 14-day 1-hr/day scheduled access period. In line with our a priori hypotheses, the results indicated that caffeinated ethanol intake was significantly greater than intake of water, caffeine, or ethanol alone (Figure 2). In addition, only the rats consuming caffeinated ethanol evidenced progressive increases in alcohol intake over the 14- day access period, which may signal a transition from casual drinking behaviors to dependence (data not shown). These findings may exhibit sub-additive or synergistic interactions of the two compounds, which may alter their rewarding or behavioral properties. However, without further investigation, it is unclear what neurobehavioral alterations are reflected by the increased intake of the combined compounds. In addition, these experiments were performed in female rats; however, sex-specific differences in self-administration are an important consideration. Future directions should look toward repeating these experiments in males to ascertain whether they would consume similar amounts of the solutions.


Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

Franklin KM, Hauser SR, Bell RL, Engleman EA - J Addict Res Ther (2013)

Average daily fluid intake (ml/kg) over 2 weeks of 1-hour/day limited access drinking sessions by adult female P rats (n = 18–30/group). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. water; + indicates p < 0.05 vs. 0.3 mg/ml caffeine; # indicates p < 0.05 vs. 15% v/v ethanol.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4238293&req=5

Figure 2: Average daily fluid intake (ml/kg) over 2 weeks of 1-hour/day limited access drinking sessions by adult female P rats (n = 18–30/group). * indicates p < 0.05 vs. water; + indicates p < 0.05 vs. 0.3 mg/ml caffeine; # indicates p < 0.05 vs. 15% v/v ethanol.
Mentions: Findings that alcoholics and individuals with increased vulnerability for developing AUDs also consume more caffeine confirm a need to investigate whether alcohol and caffeine co-consumption increases alcohol intake and/or increases the likelihood of developing AUDs (e.g. [97]). Young people, in particular, have exhibited an attraction for consuming caffeinated alcoholic beverages, and often engage in binge drinking this combination. An extensive literature highlights the deleterious effects, both peripherally and centrally, of binge alcohol-drinking [86]. Given that the addition of caffeine to alcoholic beverages appears to exacerbate binge-drinking, it is absolutely necessary that research into the acute and long-term effects of this combination be undertaken immediately. Following our previous findings that P rats consume more caffeine than do Wistar rats (Figure 1), as well as existing research detailing differences in ethanol intake between the two rat lines [58], our laboratory sought to examine levels of caffeinated ethanol intake in a controlled basic research environment. To that end, female P rats were assessed for intake of a caffeinated alcoholic solution, or one of its component ingredients: water, 0.3 mg/ml caffeine, or 15% ethanol over a 14-day 1-hr/day scheduled access period. In line with our a priori hypotheses, the results indicated that caffeinated ethanol intake was significantly greater than intake of water, caffeine, or ethanol alone (Figure 2). In addition, only the rats consuming caffeinated ethanol evidenced progressive increases in alcohol intake over the 14- day access period, which may signal a transition from casual drinking behaviors to dependence (data not shown). These findings may exhibit sub-additive or synergistic interactions of the two compounds, which may alter their rewarding or behavioral properties. However, without further investigation, it is unclear what neurobehavioral alterations are reflected by the increased intake of the combined compounds. In addition, these experiments were performed in female rats; however, sex-specific differences in self-administration are an important consideration. Future directions should look toward repeating these experiments in males to ascertain whether they would consume similar amounts of the solutions.

Bottom Line: Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others.However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior.Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Psychiatric Research, Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.

ABSTRACT
Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus