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The three-dimensional morphological effects of captivity.

Hartstone-Rose A, Selvey H, Villari JR, Atwell M, Schmidt T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers.PC3).In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America; Department of Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

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Forty-three landmarks; anterior (a), superior (b), and lateral (c) views.Note that some of the landmarks (e.g., 43) are especially hard to visualize – please see their description (Table 2). Captive ♀ tiger, SCMed Comparative Anatomy Lab Research Collection, University of South Carolina School of Medicine.
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pone-0113437-g001: Forty-three landmarks; anterior (a), superior (b), and lateral (c) views.Note that some of the landmarks (e.g., 43) are especially hard to visualize – please see their description (Table 2). Captive ♀ tiger, SCMed Comparative Anatomy Lab Research Collection, University of South Carolina School of Medicine.

Mentions: Forty-three landmarks (Table 2, Fig. 1) on each specimen were digitally recorded directly onto a spreadsheet with a MicroScribe 3D Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc.) recording three-dimensional (x, y, and z) coordinates.


The three-dimensional morphological effects of captivity.

Hartstone-Rose A, Selvey H, Villari JR, Atwell M, Schmidt T - PLoS ONE (2014)

Forty-three landmarks; anterior (a), superior (b), and lateral (c) views.Note that some of the landmarks (e.g., 43) are especially hard to visualize – please see their description (Table 2). Captive ♀ tiger, SCMed Comparative Anatomy Lab Research Collection, University of South Carolina School of Medicine.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4237414&req=5

pone-0113437-g001: Forty-three landmarks; anterior (a), superior (b), and lateral (c) views.Note that some of the landmarks (e.g., 43) are especially hard to visualize – please see their description (Table 2). Captive ♀ tiger, SCMed Comparative Anatomy Lab Research Collection, University of South Carolina School of Medicine.
Mentions: Forty-three landmarks (Table 2, Fig. 1) on each specimen were digitally recorded directly onto a spreadsheet with a MicroScribe 3D Digitizer (Solution Technologies, Inc.) recording three-dimensional (x, y, and z) coordinates.

Bottom Line: To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers.PC3).In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America; Department of Anthropology, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Many captive animals are fed diets that are drastically different in mechanical properties than their wild diet. Most captive pantherines are fed a nutritionally supplemented diet consisting almost entirely of ground meat. While many zoos supplement this diet with bones, the fact remains that large captive felids are fed diets that require substantially less masticatory effort than those of their wild counterparts. The osteological effects of this dietary difference have not been fully evaluated. To this end, we compared linear measurements and 3D geometric morphometric landmarks of captive and wild lions and tigers. Using Principal Component (PC) analysis of the linear measurements, not only were the sexes and species statistically distinct, but so too was the population clearly divisible in terms of captivity status. The 3D analysis supported these findings: although the most influential variable in the sample (PC1, 21.5% of the variation) separates the two species, the second most influential contributor (PC2) to the overall skull shape is driven not by the sex differences in these highly dimorphic species, but rather by their captivity status. In fact, captivity status drives nearly twice as much of the 3D variation as sexual dimorphism (14.8% vs. 8.0% for PC2 vs. PC3). Thus the shape is influenced nearly twice as much by whether the animal was captive or wild than by whether it was male or female. If a causal relationship can be demonstrated between dietary mechanical properties and morphology, people who oversee the diets of captive carnivores should consider modifying these diets to account for not only nutritional but also the mechanical properties of a carcass-based diet as well. In addition to the husbandry implications, our analyses show the ways in which captive specimens are different than their wild counterparts--ndings that have implications for morphologists when considering anatomical samples.

Show MeSH