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Impact of the non-contributory social pension program 70 y más on older adults' mental well-being.

Salinas-Rodríguez A, Torres-Pereda Mdel P, Manrique-Espinoza B, Moreno-Tamayo K, Téllez-Rojo Solís MM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment.These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being.This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Evaluation Research and Surveys, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2007, a non-contributory pension program was launched in rural areas of Mexico. The program consisted in a non-conditional cash transfer of US$40 monthly to all older adults (OA) aged 70 and over. We evaluate the effect of the program on mental well-being of its beneficiaries.

Methods and findings: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. For the quantitative component, we used the selection criteria established by the program (age and locality size) to form the Intervention (OA aged 70-74 residing in rural localities, <2500 inhabitants) and Control groups (OA aged 70-74, in localities with 2501-2700 inhabitants). Baseline data collection was conducted in 2007 where 5,465 OA were interviewed. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2008, and it was possible to interview 5,270 OA, with a response rate of 96%. A difference-in-difference linear probability model with individual fixed effect was used to estimate the impact of the program on mental well-being indicators. In 2009 a qualitative component was designed to explore possible causal pathways of such effect.

Results: After a year of exposure, the program had a significant effect on reduction of depressive symptoms (β = -0.06, CI95% -0.12; -0.01) and an increase in empowerment indicators: OA participated in important household decisions (β = 0.09, CI95% 0.03;0.15); and OA participated in household decisions pertaining to expenses (β = 0.11, CI95% 0.05;0.18). Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment.

Conclusions: These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being. This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare. It is recommendable that governments should invest efforts towards universalizing the non-contributory pension programs in order to ensure a basic income for the elderly.

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Analytic sample definition.
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pone-0113085-g001: Analytic sample definition.

Mentions: Inclusion criteria for the present study sample were those subjects with information on both measurements: baseline and follow up. Figure 1 shows the sample included for the impact analysis of the 70 y más program. As can be seen from the size of the originally estimated sample (6,000 elderly), 5,465 OA were interviewed at baseline, and 5,270 of these were interviewed during follow-up. The final analytical sample was defined based on the common rule from studies on OA that only mentally apt individuals or their caregivers (defined as the people who provide assistance to the OA in their basic and daily activities) can respond to survey questions. By this definition, caregivers can actually answer all questions related to the OA (e.g. demographics, labor, socioeconomic) except for the ones related to perception. For instance, a caregiver should not answer a question which requests information on the OA's emotions. Thus, any survey questions where the OA have to express their feelings or emotions are not answered by caregivers. Thus, of the 5,270 observations existing in both baseline and follow-up (Figure 1), 802 had cognitive impairment in either baseline or follow-up, and including those who had the caregivers respond to all sections with the exception of the sections on mental health, the final sample for the mental health indicators were 4,468 OA.


Impact of the non-contributory social pension program 70 y más on older adults' mental well-being.

Salinas-Rodríguez A, Torres-Pereda Mdel P, Manrique-Espinoza B, Moreno-Tamayo K, Téllez-Rojo Solís MM - PLoS ONE (2014)

Analytic sample definition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4237374&req=5

pone-0113085-g001: Analytic sample definition.
Mentions: Inclusion criteria for the present study sample were those subjects with information on both measurements: baseline and follow up. Figure 1 shows the sample included for the impact analysis of the 70 y más program. As can be seen from the size of the originally estimated sample (6,000 elderly), 5,465 OA were interviewed at baseline, and 5,270 of these were interviewed during follow-up. The final analytical sample was defined based on the common rule from studies on OA that only mentally apt individuals or their caregivers (defined as the people who provide assistance to the OA in their basic and daily activities) can respond to survey questions. By this definition, caregivers can actually answer all questions related to the OA (e.g. demographics, labor, socioeconomic) except for the ones related to perception. For instance, a caregiver should not answer a question which requests information on the OA's emotions. Thus, any survey questions where the OA have to express their feelings or emotions are not answered by caregivers. Thus, of the 5,270 observations existing in both baseline and follow-up (Figure 1), 802 had cognitive impairment in either baseline or follow-up, and including those who had the caregivers respond to all sections with the exception of the sections on mental health, the final sample for the mental health indicators were 4,468 OA.

Bottom Line: Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment.These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being.This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Evaluation Research and Surveys, National Institute of Public Health, Cuernavaca, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: In 2007, a non-contributory pension program was launched in rural areas of Mexico. The program consisted in a non-conditional cash transfer of US$40 monthly to all older adults (OA) aged 70 and over. We evaluate the effect of the program on mental well-being of its beneficiaries.

Methods and findings: Quantitative and qualitative methods were used. For the quantitative component, we used the selection criteria established by the program (age and locality size) to form the Intervention (OA aged 70-74 residing in rural localities, <2500 inhabitants) and Control groups (OA aged 70-74, in localities with 2501-2700 inhabitants). Baseline data collection was conducted in 2007 where 5,465 OA were interviewed. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2008, and it was possible to interview 5,270 OA, with a response rate of 96%. A difference-in-difference linear probability model with individual fixed effect was used to estimate the impact of the program on mental well-being indicators. In 2009 a qualitative component was designed to explore possible causal pathways of such effect.

Results: After a year of exposure, the program had a significant effect on reduction of depressive symptoms (β = -0.06, CI95% -0.12; -0.01) and an increase in empowerment indicators: OA participated in important household decisions (β = 0.09, CI95% 0.03;0.15); and OA participated in household decisions pertaining to expenses (β = 0.11, CI95% 0.05;0.18). Qualitative analysis found a strong trend showing a reduction of sadness, and feeling of increasing empowerment.

Conclusions: These results suggest that a non-conditional transfer in older ages have an impact beyond the economic sphere, impacting even the mental well-being. This effect could be explained because the pension produces feelings of safety and welfare. It is recommendable that governments should invest efforts towards universalizing the non-contributory pension programs in order to ensure a basic income for the elderly.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus