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The Coulter principle: Imaginary origins.

Graham MD - Cytometry A (2013)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Coulter Corporation, Beckman Coulter, Inc.

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Coulter Foundation summarized from the podium a story, styled as an urban legend true so far as was known, of Wallace Coulter working toward sizing pigment particles but finding his paint sample frozen... The aftermath of the August 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Wallace truly understand the need for rapid and accurate red-cell concentrations, not just occasionally for individuals, but repeatedly for members of whole populations as an index of recovery from radiation exposure... His conviction was evident in our conversations about those bombings, which he usually concluded with, “It‘s the worst mistake this country ever made. ” After their purchase of a Chicago house in April 1947, he and his brother, Joseph R... Coulter, Jr., began experimenting in their basement with Moldavan‘s suggestion for photo-electrically counting blood cells flowing through a capillary tube, but found the author‘s criticisms of the method justified... In July 1948 he found a brief note that focused his efforts on miniaturizing conductivity cells... The Coulter Principle, first illustrated in Figure 1, is the result... In its letter of May 16, 1951 (Fig. 2), the ONR acknowledged Wallace‘s purpose as work, “To Supply Blood Cell Counter,” and eventually funded development on its Contract NONR-1054(00)... The result was described in Wallace‘s sole technical paper... Available at CYTO 2013 was the May 2013 issue of Cytometry A containing another new paint story in which the author silently contradicts his earlier one by changing the Navy‘s paint problem from poor adherence to inconsistent color, Wallace‘s focus from particle size to particle concentration, and his laboratory‘s location from his garage to his basement... One consistent aspect throughout the several conjectures is their assumption that Wallace was ignorant of the disparate viscosities of paint and blood, but as several CYTO 2013 attendees recognized, this is improbable... These characteristics preclude both Coulter sizing and counting of pigment particles in such paint, even with modern Coulter Counter® instruments using modern apertures having the 76-µm diameter of Wallace‘s crude needle-made aperture (Fig. 1a)... More recently, the Foundation has removed its first paint story from a second website (7) and declined the AAU‘s Golden Goose Award to Wallace (24)... Wallace was a Charter Member of the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry and recipient of one of the Society‘s first Distinguished Service Awards... This is a request to the leadership of the Society that it encourage any constructive effort to curtail propagation of nonfactual origins of Wallace‘s Coulter Principle, which is the foundational concept underlying both the field of cytometry and the Society itself.

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(a) Photocopy of the obverse of Wallace‘s description of the October 30, 1948, demonstration of an experimental setup yielding electrical detection of red cells in diluted blood. Signed as being read and understood by W. R. Hogg, November 23, and John J. Dowling, November 25, 1948. (b) Photocopy of the reverse of Figure 1a, Wallace‘s notes describing the October 30, 1948 experiment. The two addenda are by Walter R. Hogg, who observed both that experiment and the simpler one done with the cellophane film October 16, 1948.
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fig01: (a) Photocopy of the obverse of Wallace‘s description of the October 30, 1948, demonstration of an experimental setup yielding electrical detection of red cells in diluted blood. Signed as being read and understood by W. R. Hogg, November 23, and John J. Dowling, November 25, 1948. (b) Photocopy of the reverse of Figure 1a, Wallace‘s notes describing the October 30, 1948 experiment. The two addenda are by Walter R. Hogg, who observed both that experiment and the simpler one done with the cellophane film October 16, 1948.

Mentions: Wallace neither joined the Navy nor worked as its civilian employee, and he first documented the Coulter Principle in July 1948 before demonstrating it with, neither plankton nor paint, but “blood greatly diluted” in October 1948 (Fig. 1a). Wallace later reaffirmed 11 using blood in his first demonstration of the Coulter Principle (second note by Walter R. Hogg, Fig. 1b): “When we started we didn‘t have much money, so we made an aperture by making a small hole with a hot needle in a piece of cellophane from a cigarette package. It didn‘t hold up long, but we were able to count some cells.”


The Coulter principle: Imaginary origins.

Graham MD - Cytometry A (2013)

(a) Photocopy of the obverse of Wallace‘s description of the October 30, 1948, demonstration of an experimental setup yielding electrical detection of red cells in diluted blood. Signed as being read and understood by W. R. Hogg, November 23, and John J. Dowling, November 25, 1948. (b) Photocopy of the reverse of Figure 1a, Wallace‘s notes describing the October 30, 1948 experiment. The two addenda are by Walter R. Hogg, who observed both that experiment and the simpler one done with the cellophane film October 16, 1948.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4237176&req=5

fig01: (a) Photocopy of the obverse of Wallace‘s description of the October 30, 1948, demonstration of an experimental setup yielding electrical detection of red cells in diluted blood. Signed as being read and understood by W. R. Hogg, November 23, and John J. Dowling, November 25, 1948. (b) Photocopy of the reverse of Figure 1a, Wallace‘s notes describing the October 30, 1948 experiment. The two addenda are by Walter R. Hogg, who observed both that experiment and the simpler one done with the cellophane film October 16, 1948.
Mentions: Wallace neither joined the Navy nor worked as its civilian employee, and he first documented the Coulter Principle in July 1948 before demonstrating it with, neither plankton nor paint, but “blood greatly diluted” in October 1948 (Fig. 1a). Wallace later reaffirmed 11 using blood in his first demonstration of the Coulter Principle (second note by Walter R. Hogg, Fig. 1b): “When we started we didn‘t have much money, so we made an aperture by making a small hole with a hot needle in a piece of cellophane from a cigarette package. It didn‘t hold up long, but we were able to count some cells.”

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Coulter Corporation, Beckman Coulter, Inc.

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

Coulter Foundation summarized from the podium a story, styled as an urban legend true so far as was known, of Wallace Coulter working toward sizing pigment particles but finding his paint sample frozen... The aftermath of the August 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Wallace truly understand the need for rapid and accurate red-cell concentrations, not just occasionally for individuals, but repeatedly for members of whole populations as an index of recovery from radiation exposure... His conviction was evident in our conversations about those bombings, which he usually concluded with, “It‘s the worst mistake this country ever made. ” After their purchase of a Chicago house in April 1947, he and his brother, Joseph R... Coulter, Jr., began experimenting in their basement with Moldavan‘s suggestion for photo-electrically counting blood cells flowing through a capillary tube, but found the author‘s criticisms of the method justified... In July 1948 he found a brief note that focused his efforts on miniaturizing conductivity cells... The Coulter Principle, first illustrated in Figure 1, is the result... In its letter of May 16, 1951 (Fig. 2), the ONR acknowledged Wallace‘s purpose as work, “To Supply Blood Cell Counter,” and eventually funded development on its Contract NONR-1054(00)... The result was described in Wallace‘s sole technical paper... Available at CYTO 2013 was the May 2013 issue of Cytometry A containing another new paint story in which the author silently contradicts his earlier one by changing the Navy‘s paint problem from poor adherence to inconsistent color, Wallace‘s focus from particle size to particle concentration, and his laboratory‘s location from his garage to his basement... One consistent aspect throughout the several conjectures is their assumption that Wallace was ignorant of the disparate viscosities of paint and blood, but as several CYTO 2013 attendees recognized, this is improbable... These characteristics preclude both Coulter sizing and counting of pigment particles in such paint, even with modern Coulter Counter® instruments using modern apertures having the 76-µm diameter of Wallace‘s crude needle-made aperture (Fig. 1a)... More recently, the Foundation has removed its first paint story from a second website (7) and declined the AAU‘s Golden Goose Award to Wallace (24)... Wallace was a Charter Member of the International Society for Advancement of Cytometry and recipient of one of the Society‘s first Distinguished Service Awards... This is a request to the leadership of the Society that it encourage any constructive effort to curtail propagation of nonfactual origins of Wallace‘s Coulter Principle, which is the foundational concept underlying both the field of cytometry and the Society itself.

Show MeSH