Population genomics of the killer whale indicates ecotype evolution in sympatry involving both selection and drift.
Bottom Line: We find that all population comparisons, within or among foraging ecotypes, show significant differentiation, including populations in parapatry and sympatry.Loci putatively under selection show a different pattern of structure compared to neutral loci and are associated with gene ontology terms reflecting physiologically relevant functions (e.g. related to digestion).We suggest that differential habitat use and resource specializations have promoted sufficient isolation to allow differential evolution at neutral and functional loci, but that the process is recent and dependent on both selection and drift.
Affiliation: School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.Show MeSH
Mentions: Samples were used from a long-term DNA archive built from previous studies (Hoelzel et al. 2007). Newly obtained samples from a population in the Southern Ocean at MI were collected through remote biopsy sampling, using protocols approved by the University of Pretoria's Animal Use and Care Committee (EC023-10) and under permit from the Prince Edward Islands Management Committee. Details on sample numbers and origins are provided in Table S1 (Supporting information). The distribution of sample sites is illustrated in Fig.1.
Affiliation: School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE, UK.