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Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the release of endotoxin in the rumen and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows.

Zhou J, Dong G, Ao C, Zhang S, Qiu M, Wang X, Wu Y, Erdene K, Jin L, Lei C, Zhang Z - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: Concentrations of endotoxin in rumen fluid and feces of cows fed HCS were significantly higher than those of cows fed LCS and LCF.Feeding HCS increased the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland compared with feeding LCS.Concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β and IL-8) in mammary venous plasma had a negative correlation with milk production efficiencies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet on the release of endotoxin in the rumen and the changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw diet and a low-concentrate mixed forage diet. Thirty second-parity Chinese Holstein cows in mid-lactation with a body condition score of 2.86 ± 0.29, weighing 543 ± 57 kg and producing 24.32 ± 3.86 kg milk per day were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 diets (n = 10 per treatment): 1) low-concentrate mixed forage diet (LCF) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 46 : 54; 2) high-concentrate corn straw diet (HCS) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 65 : 35; 3) low-concentrate corn straw diet (LCS) with the same concentrate to roughage ratio (46 : 54) as LCF. The experiment lasted 6 weeks, and samples were collected in the last week. Milk samples were analyzed for conventional components, rumen fluid samples were analyzed for pH and endotoxin, and mammary arterial and venous plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α).

Results: Concentrations of endotoxin in rumen fluid and feces of cows fed HCS were significantly higher than those of cows fed LCS and LCF. Feeding HCS increased the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland compared with feeding LCS. Concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β and IL-8) in mammary venous plasma had a negative correlation with milk production efficiencies.

Conclusions: Results indicated that the high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the concentrations of endotoxin in rumen fluid and feces. Furthermore, feeding the high-concentrate corn straw diet stimulated the mammary gland to release more pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results suggest that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induce a higher pro-inflammatory response in the mammary gland and thus may partly decrease the milk production efficiencies in dairy cows.

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Linear models fitted to data of milk synthesis efficiency (I), 4% FCM synthesis efficiency (II), milk fat synthesis efficiency (III), and milk protein synthesis efficiency (IV), which are expressed asy, in response to concentrations of IL-1β (expressed asx) in mammary gland venous plasma of dairy cows. I, y = −0.0022x + 1.753 (R2 = 0.1183, r = −0.3439, SE = 0.1771, P = 0.0627, n = 30); II, y = −0.0033x + 2.003 (R2 = 0.1606, r = −0.4007, SE = 0.2244, P = 0.0282, n = 30); III, y = −0.0153x + 8.457 (R2 = 0.1678, r = −0.4096, SE = 1.026, P = 0.0246, n = 30); IV, y = −0.0066x + 5.474 (R2 = 0.0795, r = −0.2820, SE = 0.6769, P = 0.1311, n = 30).
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Figure 3: Linear models fitted to data of milk synthesis efficiency (I), 4% FCM synthesis efficiency (II), milk fat synthesis efficiency (III), and milk protein synthesis efficiency (IV), which are expressed asy, in response to concentrations of IL-1β (expressed asx) in mammary gland venous plasma of dairy cows. I, y = −0.0022x + 1.753 (R2 = 0.1183, r = −0.3439, SE = 0.1771, P = 0.0627, n = 30); II, y = −0.0033x + 2.003 (R2 = 0.1606, r = −0.4007, SE = 0.2244, P = 0.0282, n = 30); III, y = −0.0153x + 8.457 (R2 = 0.1678, r = −0.4096, SE = 1.026, P = 0.0246, n = 30); IV, y = −0.0066x + 5.474 (R2 = 0.0795, r = −0.2820, SE = 0.6769, P = 0.1311, n = 30).

Mentions: The relationships between concentrations of mammary venous plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and milk production efficiencies (milk synthesis efficiency, 4% FCM synthesis efficiency, milk fat synthesis efficiency, and milk protein synthesis efficiency) in dairy cows are presented in Figures 3, 4, 5, respectively. The increase in concentration of mammary venous plasma IL-1β was associated with a decline in milk production efficiencies (except milk protein synthesis efficiency; Figure 3). However, there were no significant relationships between mammary venous plasma IL-6 concentration and milk production efficiencies (Figure 4). The increase in concentration of mammary venous plasma IL-8 was also associated with a decline in milk production efficiencies (except milk synthesis efficiency; Figure 5).


Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the release of endotoxin in the rumen and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows.

Zhou J, Dong G, Ao C, Zhang S, Qiu M, Wang X, Wu Y, Erdene K, Jin L, Lei C, Zhang Z - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Linear models fitted to data of milk synthesis efficiency (I), 4% FCM synthesis efficiency (II), milk fat synthesis efficiency (III), and milk protein synthesis efficiency (IV), which are expressed asy, in response to concentrations of IL-1β (expressed asx) in mammary gland venous plasma of dairy cows. I, y = −0.0022x + 1.753 (R2 = 0.1183, r = −0.3439, SE = 0.1771, P = 0.0627, n = 30); II, y = −0.0033x + 2.003 (R2 = 0.1606, r = −0.4007, SE = 0.2244, P = 0.0282, n = 30); III, y = −0.0153x + 8.457 (R2 = 0.1678, r = −0.4096, SE = 1.026, P = 0.0246, n = 30); IV, y = −0.0066x + 5.474 (R2 = 0.0795, r = −0.2820, SE = 0.6769, P = 0.1311, n = 30).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 3: Linear models fitted to data of milk synthesis efficiency (I), 4% FCM synthesis efficiency (II), milk fat synthesis efficiency (III), and milk protein synthesis efficiency (IV), which are expressed asy, in response to concentrations of IL-1β (expressed asx) in mammary gland venous plasma of dairy cows. I, y = −0.0022x + 1.753 (R2 = 0.1183, r = −0.3439, SE = 0.1771, P = 0.0627, n = 30); II, y = −0.0033x + 2.003 (R2 = 0.1606, r = −0.4007, SE = 0.2244, P = 0.0282, n = 30); III, y = −0.0153x + 8.457 (R2 = 0.1678, r = −0.4096, SE = 1.026, P = 0.0246, n = 30); IV, y = −0.0066x + 5.474 (R2 = 0.0795, r = −0.2820, SE = 0.6769, P = 0.1311, n = 30).
Mentions: The relationships between concentrations of mammary venous plasma IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and milk production efficiencies (milk synthesis efficiency, 4% FCM synthesis efficiency, milk fat synthesis efficiency, and milk protein synthesis efficiency) in dairy cows are presented in Figures 3, 4, 5, respectively. The increase in concentration of mammary venous plasma IL-1β was associated with a decline in milk production efficiencies (except milk protein synthesis efficiency; Figure 3). However, there were no significant relationships between mammary venous plasma IL-6 concentration and milk production efficiencies (Figure 4). The increase in concentration of mammary venous plasma IL-8 was also associated with a decline in milk production efficiencies (except milk synthesis efficiency; Figure 5).

Bottom Line: Concentrations of endotoxin in rumen fluid and feces of cows fed HCS were significantly higher than those of cows fed LCS and LCF.Feeding HCS increased the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland compared with feeding LCS.Concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β and IL-8) in mammary venous plasma had a negative correlation with milk production efficiencies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet on the release of endotoxin in the rumen and the changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the mammary gland of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw diet and a low-concentrate mixed forage diet. Thirty second-parity Chinese Holstein cows in mid-lactation with a body condition score of 2.86 ± 0.29, weighing 543 ± 57 kg and producing 24.32 ± 3.86 kg milk per day were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 diets (n = 10 per treatment): 1) low-concentrate mixed forage diet (LCF) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 46 : 54; 2) high-concentrate corn straw diet (HCS) with a concentrate to roughage ratio of 65 : 35; 3) low-concentrate corn straw diet (LCS) with the same concentrate to roughage ratio (46 : 54) as LCF. The experiment lasted 6 weeks, and samples were collected in the last week. Milk samples were analyzed for conventional components, rumen fluid samples were analyzed for pH and endotoxin, and mammary arterial and venous plasma samples were analyzed for concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α).

Results: Concentrations of endotoxin in rumen fluid and feces of cows fed HCS were significantly higher than those of cows fed LCS and LCF. Feeding HCS increased the release of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in the mammary gland compared with feeding LCS. Concentrations of cytokines (IL-1β and IL-8) in mammary venous plasma had a negative correlation with milk production efficiencies.

Conclusions: Results indicated that the high-concentrate corn straw diet increased the concentrations of endotoxin in rumen fluid and feces. Furthermore, feeding the high-concentrate corn straw diet stimulated the mammary gland to release more pro-inflammatory cytokines. The results suggest that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induce a higher pro-inflammatory response in the mammary gland and thus may partly decrease the milk production efficiencies in dairy cows.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus