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Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Black Bengal goats: virological, pathological and immunohistochemical investigation.

Chowdhury EH, Bhuiyan AR, Rahman MM, Siddique MS, Islam MR - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Bottom Line: Field results are better indicators of pathogenicity of the circulating virus.PPR virus antigen was found in pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in lungs.The striking histo-morphologic diagnosis of PPR was acute pneumonia and severe gastro-enteritis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. emdad001@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as Goat Plague, occurs in goats, sheep and related species. It is caused by a morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. In Bangladesh PPR is endemic and it causes serious economic losses. Pathology of PPR has been reported in different goat and sheep breeds from natural and experimental infections. Field results are better indicators of pathogenicity of the circulating virus. The severity of the disease varies with species, breed and immune status of the host. Pathological investigations of natural outbreaks of PPR in Balck Bengal goats are very limited. The current investigation was aimed at describing pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in Black Bengal goats.

Results: A total of 28 outbreaks were investigated clinically and virologically. Average flock morbidity and mortality were 75% and 59%, respectively, with case fatality rate of 74%. Necropsy was conducted on 21 goats from 15 outbreaks. The major gross lesions were congestion of gastrointestinal tract, pneumonia, engorged spleen, and oedematous lymphnodes. Histopathological examination revealed severe enteritis with denudation of intestinal epithelium, severe broncho-interstitial pneumonia with macrophages within lung alveoli and extensive haemorrhages with depletion of lymphoid cells and infiltration of macrophages in the sinuses of spleen. In lymph nodes, the cortical nodules were replaced by wide sinusoids with severe depletion of lymphocytes, infiltration of mononuclear cells and some giant cells in sub-capsular areas and medullary sinuses. PPR virus antigen was found in pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in lungs. Viral RNA could be detected by RT-PCR in 69 out of 84 nasal swab, 59 out of 84 blood and 21 out of 21 lymph node samples. Sequence analyses revealed closeness of Bangladeshi strains with other recent Asian isolates.

Conclusion: Natural outbreaks of PPR in Black Bengal goats in Bangladesh resulted in 75% and 59% flock morbidity and mortality, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 74%. The striking histo-morphologic diagnosis of PPR was acute pneumonia and severe gastro-enteritis. A detailed experimental pathological study on Black Bengal goats infected with recent isolates is required.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Necropsy finding of lung of a PPR virus infected goat. Lung showed pneumonia with consolidation and accumulation of fibrin (arrow) over the surface of the lung. Lung showed muscular appearance.
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Fig2: Necropsy finding of lung of a PPR virus infected goat. Lung showed pneumonia with consolidation and accumulation of fibrin (arrow) over the surface of the lung. Lung showed muscular appearance.

Mentions: The carcasses were dehydrated and emaciated with sunken eyes, but some goats were in good bodily condition after death at early infection. The lesions of respiratory tract included necrotic areas on the mucosa of nostrils and turbinate and severely congested tracheal mucous membrane with white frothy mucus in lumen (Figure 1). The lungs were dark red or purple with areas firm to touch, mainly in the anterior and cardiac lobes (Figure 2). In the digestive tract, rumens of three goats revealed ecchymotic haemorrhages (Figure 3) and streaks of haemorrhages were also seen in duodenum and the terminal ileum (Figure 4). The lymph nodes, especially from the mesentery were severely oedematous, congested and enlarged (Figure 5). The large intestine was usually more severely affected with congestion around the ileocaecal valve, at the caeco-colic junction, and in the rectum, although not in all the carcasses. Spleen was atrophied in cases that died after a couple of weeks (Figure 6). Erosive vulvo-vaginitis was observed in eight animals.Figure 1


Natural peste des petits ruminants virus infection in Black Bengal goats: virological, pathological and immunohistochemical investigation.

Chowdhury EH, Bhuiyan AR, Rahman MM, Siddique MS, Islam MR - BMC Vet. Res. (2014)

Necropsy finding of lung of a PPR virus infected goat. Lung showed pneumonia with consolidation and accumulation of fibrin (arrow) over the surface of the lung. Lung showed muscular appearance.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4233235&req=5

Fig2: Necropsy finding of lung of a PPR virus infected goat. Lung showed pneumonia with consolidation and accumulation of fibrin (arrow) over the surface of the lung. Lung showed muscular appearance.
Mentions: The carcasses were dehydrated and emaciated with sunken eyes, but some goats were in good bodily condition after death at early infection. The lesions of respiratory tract included necrotic areas on the mucosa of nostrils and turbinate and severely congested tracheal mucous membrane with white frothy mucus in lumen (Figure 1). The lungs were dark red or purple with areas firm to touch, mainly in the anterior and cardiac lobes (Figure 2). In the digestive tract, rumens of three goats revealed ecchymotic haemorrhages (Figure 3) and streaks of haemorrhages were also seen in duodenum and the terminal ileum (Figure 4). The lymph nodes, especially from the mesentery were severely oedematous, congested and enlarged (Figure 5). The large intestine was usually more severely affected with congestion around the ileocaecal valve, at the caeco-colic junction, and in the rectum, although not in all the carcasses. Spleen was atrophied in cases that died after a couple of weeks (Figure 6). Erosive vulvo-vaginitis was observed in eight animals.Figure 1

Bottom Line: Field results are better indicators of pathogenicity of the circulating virus.PPR virus antigen was found in pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in lungs.The striking histo-morphologic diagnosis of PPR was acute pneumonia and severe gastro-enteritis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. emdad001@yahoo.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR), also known as Goat Plague, occurs in goats, sheep and related species. It is caused by a morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. In Bangladesh PPR is endemic and it causes serious economic losses. Pathology of PPR has been reported in different goat and sheep breeds from natural and experimental infections. Field results are better indicators of pathogenicity of the circulating virus. The severity of the disease varies with species, breed and immune status of the host. Pathological investigations of natural outbreaks of PPR in Balck Bengal goats are very limited. The current investigation was aimed at describing pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in Black Bengal goats.

Results: A total of 28 outbreaks were investigated clinically and virologically. Average flock morbidity and mortality were 75% and 59%, respectively, with case fatality rate of 74%. Necropsy was conducted on 21 goats from 15 outbreaks. The major gross lesions were congestion of gastrointestinal tract, pneumonia, engorged spleen, and oedematous lymphnodes. Histopathological examination revealed severe enteritis with denudation of intestinal epithelium, severe broncho-interstitial pneumonia with macrophages within lung alveoli and extensive haemorrhages with depletion of lymphoid cells and infiltration of macrophages in the sinuses of spleen. In lymph nodes, the cortical nodules were replaced by wide sinusoids with severe depletion of lymphocytes, infiltration of mononuclear cells and some giant cells in sub-capsular areas and medullary sinuses. PPR virus antigen was found in pneumocytes and alveolar macrophages in lungs. Viral RNA could be detected by RT-PCR in 69 out of 84 nasal swab, 59 out of 84 blood and 21 out of 21 lymph node samples. Sequence analyses revealed closeness of Bangladeshi strains with other recent Asian isolates.

Conclusion: Natural outbreaks of PPR in Black Bengal goats in Bangladesh resulted in 75% and 59% flock morbidity and mortality, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 74%. The striking histo-morphologic diagnosis of PPR was acute pneumonia and severe gastro-enteritis. A detailed experimental pathological study on Black Bengal goats infected with recent isolates is required.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus