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Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.

Shang J, Song P, Ma B, Qi X, Zeng Q, Xiang Z, He N - Funct. Integr. Genomics (2014)

Bottom Line: A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family.The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues.The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China.

ABSTRACT
The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress.

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Alignment of amino acid sequences of ERF VII subfamily genes from mulberry, Arabidopsis and rice using the ClustalX program. HRE1/2, RAP2.2, RAP2.3, and RAP2.12 belong to VII group of Arabidopsis. Sub1A-1, Sub1B-1, and Sub1C-1 belong to Oryza sativa
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Fig5: Alignment of amino acid sequences of ERF VII subfamily genes from mulberry, Arabidopsis and rice using the ClustalX program. HRE1/2, RAP2.2, RAP2.3, and RAP2.12 belong to VII group of Arabidopsis. Sub1A-1, Sub1B-1, and Sub1C-1 belong to Oryza sativa

Mentions: Genes in MnERF-B subfamily were expressed at relatively higher levels in different tissues. All members of this subfamily have a conserved N-terminal motif MCGGAV/II, which is considered to be involved in the regulation of low-oxygen response in plants (Fig. 5). Analyses of the promoter regions of MnERF-B2-1, MnERF-B2-2, and MnERF-B2-3 showed that they contain consensus sequences of transcription factor binding sites. As shown in Table 2, four catalogues of putative regulatory elements (stress response, hormone response, light response, and others) were detected in the flanking regions of three genes. GARE, CE3, ABRE, TCA, and TGACG-motifs are involved in the signaling of mulberry hormones. Typical heat shock element (HSE) and low temperature stress response element (LTR) were also observed. It is noteworthy that ARE and GC motifs, which are known to be responsive to the hypoxemia and anaerobic conditions, were detected in the promoters of MnERF-B2-1 and MnERF-B2-3. In this context, two of these three genes from Husang-32, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, were cloned, sequenced, and their expression patterns were further investigated. Mulberry cultivar Husang-32 is widely planted in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. As shown in Fig. 6a, MaERF-B2-2 has higher expression than MaERF-B2-1 or MaERF-B2-3. To understand the changes in gene expression that takes place after flooding, the expression of the MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 was detected after treatment lasting 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, 7 h, 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days (Fig. 6c). Results showed that MaERF-B2-1 was up-regulated in roots and leaves after 1 day of flooding. The change took place faster in leaves than that in roots. MaERFB2-2 showed fast up-regulation in roots after 1 h of flooding. MaERF-B2-1 showed a greater fold change than MaERF-B2-2. These results indicated that MaERF-B2-1 and MaERFB2-2 may play important roles in Husang-32’s response to flooding.Fig. 5


Identification of the mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathways and the expression of MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 in the response to flooding stress.

Shang J, Song P, Ma B, Qi X, Zeng Q, Xiang Z, He N - Funct. Integr. Genomics (2014)

Alignment of amino acid sequences of ERF VII subfamily genes from mulberry, Arabidopsis and rice using the ClustalX program. HRE1/2, RAP2.2, RAP2.3, and RAP2.12 belong to VII group of Arabidopsis. Sub1A-1, Sub1B-1, and Sub1C-1 belong to Oryza sativa
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4233114&req=5

Fig5: Alignment of amino acid sequences of ERF VII subfamily genes from mulberry, Arabidopsis and rice using the ClustalX program. HRE1/2, RAP2.2, RAP2.3, and RAP2.12 belong to VII group of Arabidopsis. Sub1A-1, Sub1B-1, and Sub1C-1 belong to Oryza sativa
Mentions: Genes in MnERF-B subfamily were expressed at relatively higher levels in different tissues. All members of this subfamily have a conserved N-terminal motif MCGGAV/II, which is considered to be involved in the regulation of low-oxygen response in plants (Fig. 5). Analyses of the promoter regions of MnERF-B2-1, MnERF-B2-2, and MnERF-B2-3 showed that they contain consensus sequences of transcription factor binding sites. As shown in Table 2, four catalogues of putative regulatory elements (stress response, hormone response, light response, and others) were detected in the flanking regions of three genes. GARE, CE3, ABRE, TCA, and TGACG-motifs are involved in the signaling of mulberry hormones. Typical heat shock element (HSE) and low temperature stress response element (LTR) were also observed. It is noteworthy that ARE and GC motifs, which are known to be responsive to the hypoxemia and anaerobic conditions, were detected in the promoters of MnERF-B2-1 and MnERF-B2-3. In this context, two of these three genes from Husang-32, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, were cloned, sequenced, and their expression patterns were further investigated. Mulberry cultivar Husang-32 is widely planted in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. As shown in Fig. 6a, MaERF-B2-2 has higher expression than MaERF-B2-1 or MaERF-B2-3. To understand the changes in gene expression that takes place after flooding, the expression of the MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2 was detected after treatment lasting 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, 7 h, 1 day, 3 days, 5 days, and 7 days (Fig. 6c). Results showed that MaERF-B2-1 was up-regulated in roots and leaves after 1 day of flooding. The change took place faster in leaves than that in roots. MaERFB2-2 showed fast up-regulation in roots after 1 h of flooding. MaERF-B2-1 showed a greater fold change than MaERF-B2-2. These results indicated that MaERF-B2-1 and MaERFB2-2 may play important roles in Husang-32’s response to flooding.Fig. 5

Bottom Line: A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family.The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues.The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: State Key Laboratory of Silkworm Genome Biology, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, 400715, China.

ABSTRACT
The phytohormone ethylene is essential to plant growth and development. It plays crucial roles in responses to biotic and abiotic stress. The mulberry tree is an important crop plant in countries in which people rear silkworms for silk production. The availability of the mulberry genome has made it possible to identify mulberry genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and signal pathways. A total of 145 mulberry genes were identified by both homology-based and hidden Markov model (HMM) search, including 29 genes associated with ethylene biosynthesis and 116 genes in the AP2/ERF family. Studies on gene structure have provided a genetic basis for understanding the functions of these genes. The differences in gene expression were also observed in different tissues. The expression of two mulberry genes in the AP2/ERF family, MaERF-B2-1 and MaERF-B2-2, was found to be associated with the response to flooding stress.

Show MeSH