Trends in deforestation and forest degradation after a decade of monitoring in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve in Mexico.
Bottom Line: Mexican authorities effectively enforced efforts to protect the monarch reserve, particularly from 2007 to 2012.Those efforts, together with the decade-long financial support from Mexican and international philanthropists and businesses to create local alternative-income generation and employment, resulted in the decrease of large-scale illegal logging from 731 ha affected in 2005-2007 to none affected in 2012, although small-scale logging is of growing concern.The monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus) overwintering colonies in Mexico-which engage in one of the longest known insect migrations-are threatened by deforestation, and a multistakeholder, regional, sustainable-development strategy is needed to protect the reserve.
Affiliation: World Wildlife Fund - Mexico, Av. Mexico No. 51, Col. Hipódromo, Mexico, DF, 06110, Mexico. firstname.lastname@example.org.Show MeSH
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Mentions: A total of 2179 ha of forest of the core zones was affected between 2001 and 2012: 1254 ha were deforested and 925 ha were degraded (Tables1 & 2; Fig.2). Of this, 2057 ha were affected by illegal logging (1503 ha by large-scale logging and 554 ha by small-scale logging) and 122 ha by floods, strong winds, drought, and fire (Fig.3 & Supporting Information). In 2012, for the first time since we began monitoring the reserve in 2001, our aerial surveys detected no degradation or deforestation by large-scale illegal logging. During field visits from 2011 to 2012, we detected 21 ha affected by drought and parasitic plants (Arceuthobium spp. and Psittacanthus calyculatus) (14 ha) and by tree removal for disease control (7 ha).
Affiliation: World Wildlife Fund - Mexico, Av. Mexico No. 51, Col. Hipódromo, Mexico, DF, 06110, Mexico. email@example.com.