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Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): a model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection.

Tsai HY, Chang M, Liu SC, Abe G, Ota KG - Dev. Dyn. (2013)

Bottom Line: Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species.We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices of zebrafish and goldfish.These results provide an opportunity for further study of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development, through applying well-established zebrafish molecular biological resources to goldfish embryos.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology, Marine Research Station, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Yilan, Taiwan; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

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Histological sections of hatching stage larva. A,B: Transverse sections at the eye and otic levels, respectively. C,D: Horizontal sections at the otic vesicle and eye levels, respectively. E–K: Transverse sections at the levels of the posterior end of the pectoral fin (E), the yolk extension (approximately 260 μm anterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; F), the posterior end of the yolk extension (G), the pre-anal region (100 μm posterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; H), cloaca (I), and post cloacal regions (330 and 1,000 μm posterior to cloaca; J and K). L: Horizontal section of trunk. Arrows indicate myoseptum. Two sets of sections (A,B and C–K) are derived from identical individuals. Sections were stained with eosin, haematoxylin, and Alcian blue. ao, dorsal aorta; art, atrium; ba, branchial arch; ce, cerebellum; cl, cloaca; dien, diencephalon; dm.ff, dorsal median fin fold; gcl, ganglion cell layer; ha, hyoid arch; inl, inner nuclear layer; int, intestinal tract; ipl, inner plexiform layer; li, liver; mes, mesencephalon; myo, myotome; n.pi, nasal pit; ne, neural tube; nt, notochord; onl outer nuclear layer; opl, outer plexiform layer; pa.c, parachordal cartilage; pe.sac, pericardial sac; pec.f, pectoral fin; pnd, pronephric duct; pre.an.ff, pre-anal fin fold; rpe, retinal pigment epithelium; sb, swim bladder; tel, telencephalon; tr, trabecula; trg, trigeminal ganglia; ve, axial vein; vent, ventricle; vm.ff, ventral median fin; y, yolk; y.ext, yolk extension; ysl, yolk syncytial layer. Scale bars = 100 μm. E–K are shown at the same magnification.
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fig18: Histological sections of hatching stage larva. A,B: Transverse sections at the eye and otic levels, respectively. C,D: Horizontal sections at the otic vesicle and eye levels, respectively. E–K: Transverse sections at the levels of the posterior end of the pectoral fin (E), the yolk extension (approximately 260 μm anterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; F), the posterior end of the yolk extension (G), the pre-anal region (100 μm posterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; H), cloaca (I), and post cloacal regions (330 and 1,000 μm posterior to cloaca; J and K). L: Horizontal section of trunk. Arrows indicate myoseptum. Two sets of sections (A,B and C–K) are derived from identical individuals. Sections were stained with eosin, haematoxylin, and Alcian blue. ao, dorsal aorta; art, atrium; ba, branchial arch; ce, cerebellum; cl, cloaca; dien, diencephalon; dm.ff, dorsal median fin fold; gcl, ganglion cell layer; ha, hyoid arch; inl, inner nuclear layer; int, intestinal tract; ipl, inner plexiform layer; li, liver; mes, mesencephalon; myo, myotome; n.pi, nasal pit; ne, neural tube; nt, notochord; onl outer nuclear layer; opl, outer plexiform layer; pa.c, parachordal cartilage; pe.sac, pericardial sac; pec.f, pectoral fin; pnd, pronephric duct; pre.an.ff, pre-anal fin fold; rpe, retinal pigment epithelium; sb, swim bladder; tel, telencephalon; tr, trabecula; trg, trigeminal ganglia; ve, axial vein; vent, ventricle; vm.ff, ventral median fin; y, yolk; y.ext, yolk extension; ysl, yolk syncytial layer. Scale bars = 100 μm. E–K are shown at the same magnification.

Mentions: The goldfish staging system described by Li et al. (1959) follows development of the vein and median fins. On the other hand, staging of zebrafish embryos and larvae involves pigmentation patterns (distribution of melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores), the shape of the pectoral fin bud, and the head–trunk angle (HTA) (Kimmel et al., 1995). After 48 hpf at 24°C, goldfish embryos and larvae also show xanthophore pigmentation patterns and evident elongation of the fin bud and fins (Figs. 15, 16), which cannot be observed in the pharyngula period (Fig. 12). By applying the above characteristics and following the zebrafish nomenclature systems (Kimmel et al., 1995), we categorized goldfish embryos and larvae in this period into three stages: long pec, pec-fin, and protruding mouth (Figs. 7). We also conducted histological analysis of late-stage larvae in this period (Fig. 18).


Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): a model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection.

Tsai HY, Chang M, Liu SC, Abe G, Ota KG - Dev. Dyn. (2013)

Histological sections of hatching stage larva. A,B: Transverse sections at the eye and otic levels, respectively. C,D: Horizontal sections at the otic vesicle and eye levels, respectively. E–K: Transverse sections at the levels of the posterior end of the pectoral fin (E), the yolk extension (approximately 260 μm anterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; F), the posterior end of the yolk extension (G), the pre-anal region (100 μm posterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; H), cloaca (I), and post cloacal regions (330 and 1,000 μm posterior to cloaca; J and K). L: Horizontal section of trunk. Arrows indicate myoseptum. Two sets of sections (A,B and C–K) are derived from identical individuals. Sections were stained with eosin, haematoxylin, and Alcian blue. ao, dorsal aorta; art, atrium; ba, branchial arch; ce, cerebellum; cl, cloaca; dien, diencephalon; dm.ff, dorsal median fin fold; gcl, ganglion cell layer; ha, hyoid arch; inl, inner nuclear layer; int, intestinal tract; ipl, inner plexiform layer; li, liver; mes, mesencephalon; myo, myotome; n.pi, nasal pit; ne, neural tube; nt, notochord; onl outer nuclear layer; opl, outer plexiform layer; pa.c, parachordal cartilage; pe.sac, pericardial sac; pec.f, pectoral fin; pnd, pronephric duct; pre.an.ff, pre-anal fin fold; rpe, retinal pigment epithelium; sb, swim bladder; tel, telencephalon; tr, trabecula; trg, trigeminal ganglia; ve, axial vein; vent, ventricle; vm.ff, ventral median fin; y, yolk; y.ext, yolk extension; ysl, yolk syncytial layer. Scale bars = 100 μm. E–K are shown at the same magnification.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig18: Histological sections of hatching stage larva. A,B: Transverse sections at the eye and otic levels, respectively. C,D: Horizontal sections at the otic vesicle and eye levels, respectively. E–K: Transverse sections at the levels of the posterior end of the pectoral fin (E), the yolk extension (approximately 260 μm anterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; F), the posterior end of the yolk extension (G), the pre-anal region (100 μm posterior to the posterior end of the yolk extension; H), cloaca (I), and post cloacal regions (330 and 1,000 μm posterior to cloaca; J and K). L: Horizontal section of trunk. Arrows indicate myoseptum. Two sets of sections (A,B and C–K) are derived from identical individuals. Sections were stained with eosin, haematoxylin, and Alcian blue. ao, dorsal aorta; art, atrium; ba, branchial arch; ce, cerebellum; cl, cloaca; dien, diencephalon; dm.ff, dorsal median fin fold; gcl, ganglion cell layer; ha, hyoid arch; inl, inner nuclear layer; int, intestinal tract; ipl, inner plexiform layer; li, liver; mes, mesencephalon; myo, myotome; n.pi, nasal pit; ne, neural tube; nt, notochord; onl outer nuclear layer; opl, outer plexiform layer; pa.c, parachordal cartilage; pe.sac, pericardial sac; pec.f, pectoral fin; pnd, pronephric duct; pre.an.ff, pre-anal fin fold; rpe, retinal pigment epithelium; sb, swim bladder; tel, telencephalon; tr, trabecula; trg, trigeminal ganglia; ve, axial vein; vent, ventricle; vm.ff, ventral median fin; y, yolk; y.ext, yolk extension; ysl, yolk syncytial layer. Scale bars = 100 μm. E–K are shown at the same magnification.
Mentions: The goldfish staging system described by Li et al. (1959) follows development of the vein and median fins. On the other hand, staging of zebrafish embryos and larvae involves pigmentation patterns (distribution of melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores), the shape of the pectoral fin bud, and the head–trunk angle (HTA) (Kimmel et al., 1995). After 48 hpf at 24°C, goldfish embryos and larvae also show xanthophore pigmentation patterns and evident elongation of the fin bud and fins (Figs. 15, 16), which cannot be observed in the pharyngula period (Fig. 12). By applying the above characteristics and following the zebrafish nomenclature systems (Kimmel et al., 1995), we categorized goldfish embryos and larvae in this period into three stages: long pec, pec-fin, and protruding mouth (Figs. 7). We also conducted histological analysis of late-stage larvae in this period (Fig. 18).

Bottom Line: Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species.We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices of zebrafish and goldfish.These results provide an opportunity for further study of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development, through applying well-established zebrafish molecular biological resources to goldfish embryos.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology, Marine Research Station, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Yilan, Taiwan; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus