Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): a model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection.
Bottom Line: Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species.We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices of zebrafish and goldfish.These results provide an opportunity for further study of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development, through applying well-established zebrafish molecular biological resources to goldfish embryos.
Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology, Marine Research Station, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Yilan, Taiwan; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.Show MeSH
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Mentions: The goldfish staging system described by Li et al. (1959) follows development of the vein and median fins. On the other hand, staging of zebrafish embryos and larvae involves pigmentation patterns (distribution of melanophores, xanthophores, and iridophores), the shape of the pectoral fin bud, and the head–trunk angle (HTA) (Kimmel et al., 1995). After 48 hpf at 24°C, goldfish embryos and larvae also show xanthophore pigmentation patterns and evident elongation of the fin bud and fins (Figs. 15, 16), which cannot be observed in the pharyngula period (Fig. 12). By applying the above characteristics and following the zebrafish nomenclature systems (Kimmel et al., 1995), we categorized goldfish embryos and larvae in this period into three stages: long pec, pec-fin, and protruding mouth (Figs. 7). We also conducted histological analysis of late-stage larvae in this period (Fig. 18).
Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology, Marine Research Station, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Yilan, Taiwan; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.