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Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): a model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection.

Tsai HY, Chang M, Liu SC, Abe G, Ota KG - Dev. Dyn. (2013)

Bottom Line: Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species.We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices of zebrafish and goldfish.These results provide an opportunity for further study of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development, through applying well-established zebrafish molecular biological resources to goldfish embryos.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology, Marine Research Station, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Yilan, Taiwan; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

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Indices for staging of embryos during the pharyngula period. A,B: Schematic drawings of early (A) and late (B) pharyngula embryos. Blue arrows indicate the shortest distance between the posterior end of the eye and the anterior end of the otic vesicle (dist. e. ot). Red arrows indicate the length of the major axis of the otic vesicle (l. ot). The percentage of otic vesicle closure (OVC) is defined as l. ot/l. ot + dist. e. ot. e, eye; ot, otic vesicle; pec. fb, pectoral fin bud.
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fig13: Indices for staging of embryos during the pharyngula period. A,B: Schematic drawings of early (A) and late (B) pharyngula embryos. Blue arrows indicate the shortest distance between the posterior end of the eye and the anterior end of the otic vesicle (dist. e. ot). Red arrows indicate the length of the major axis of the otic vesicle (l. ot). The percentage of otic vesicle closure (OVC) is defined as l. ot/l. ot + dist. e. ot. e, eye; ot, otic vesicle; pec. fb, pectoral fin bud.

Mentions: In lieu of DIC microscopy, we used a stereomicroscope with oblique light to observe lateral line primordia (see the Experimental Procedures section). We were able to trace lateral line primordia in late pharyngula stage goldfish embryos embedded on agar plates; the lateral embryonic sides of these embryos could be observed with the same depth of focus. However, we could not identify lateral line primordia in early pharyngula stage embryos, because at this stage, the anterior half of the embryonic part is curved, thick, and less transparent (Fig. 12). Thus, for stage identification during this period, we examined “otic vesicle closure” (OVC) (Fig. 13). This index corresponds with “otic vesicle length” (OVL) (Kimmel et al., 1995). OVC increases from approximately 20% at the beginning of the pharyngula period to over 60% at the end, being inversely proportional to OVL. Based on OVC, we categorized goldfish embryos in the pharyngeal period into three different stages (25% OVC, 35% OVC, and 65% OVC; Table2; Fig. 13). We also examined histological sections of 60% OVC embryos, to inspect the development of tissues and organs (Fig. 14).


Embryonic development of goldfish (Carassius auratus): a model for the study of evolutionary change in developmental mechanisms by artificial selection.

Tsai HY, Chang M, Liu SC, Abe G, Ota KG - Dev. Dyn. (2013)

Indices for staging of embryos during the pharyngula period. A,B: Schematic drawings of early (A) and late (B) pharyngula embryos. Blue arrows indicate the shortest distance between the posterior end of the eye and the anterior end of the otic vesicle (dist. e. ot). Red arrows indicate the length of the major axis of the otic vesicle (l. ot). The percentage of otic vesicle closure (OVC) is defined as l. ot/l. ot + dist. e. ot. e, eye; ot, otic vesicle; pec. fb, pectoral fin bud.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232884&req=5

fig13: Indices for staging of embryos during the pharyngula period. A,B: Schematic drawings of early (A) and late (B) pharyngula embryos. Blue arrows indicate the shortest distance between the posterior end of the eye and the anterior end of the otic vesicle (dist. e. ot). Red arrows indicate the length of the major axis of the otic vesicle (l. ot). The percentage of otic vesicle closure (OVC) is defined as l. ot/l. ot + dist. e. ot. e, eye; ot, otic vesicle; pec. fb, pectoral fin bud.
Mentions: In lieu of DIC microscopy, we used a stereomicroscope with oblique light to observe lateral line primordia (see the Experimental Procedures section). We were able to trace lateral line primordia in late pharyngula stage goldfish embryos embedded on agar plates; the lateral embryonic sides of these embryos could be observed with the same depth of focus. However, we could not identify lateral line primordia in early pharyngula stage embryos, because at this stage, the anterior half of the embryonic part is curved, thick, and less transparent (Fig. 12). Thus, for stage identification during this period, we examined “otic vesicle closure” (OVC) (Fig. 13). This index corresponds with “otic vesicle length” (OVL) (Kimmel et al., 1995). OVC increases from approximately 20% at the beginning of the pharyngula period to over 60% at the end, being inversely proportional to OVL. Based on OVC, we categorized goldfish embryos in the pharyngeal period into three different stages (25% OVC, 35% OVC, and 65% OVC; Table2; Fig. 13). We also examined histological sections of 60% OVC embryos, to inspect the development of tissues and organs (Fig. 14).

Bottom Line: Here we describe the embryological development of the common goldfish (the single fin Wakin), which retains the ancestral morphology of this species.We divided goldfish embryonic development into seven periods consisting of 34 stages, using previously reported developmental indices of zebrafish and goldfish.These results provide an opportunity for further study of the evolutionary relationship between domestication and development, through applying well-established zebrafish molecular biological resources to goldfish embryos.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Aquatic Zoology, Marine Research Station, Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology, Academia Sinica, Yilan, Taiwan; The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, United Kingdom.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus