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Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.

Eichinger I, Schmitz-Esser S, Schmid M, Fisher CR, Bright M - Environ Microbiol Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts.We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues.This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

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Raman microspectroscopy of the region between 100 cm−1 and 600 cm−1. A. Raman spectrum of orthorhombic crystals. B. Raman spectrum of needle-shaped crystals. C. Elemental S8 sulfur. Both crystal types showed very strong bands at about 470 cm−1 [sulfur–sulfur bond (S-S) stretching], 220 cm−1, and 151 cm−1 (both S8 bending), indicating that both crystal types consisted of rhombic S8 sulfur (Ward, 1968). Weaker bands at 245 cm−1 and 433 cm−1 also assignable to S8 sulfur (Trofimov et al., 2009) could be observed, while the additional peak at 187 cm−1 visible in the S8 sulfur spectrum was below background level. The main bands indicative for measured S8 sulfur are indicated by vertical dotted lines. The numbers indicate the position of the bands in S8 sulfur in cm-1. The numbers in brackets indicate the wave numbers for the respective sulfur band in both crystal types.
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fig05: Raman microspectroscopy of the region between 100 cm−1 and 600 cm−1. A. Raman spectrum of orthorhombic crystals. B. Raman spectrum of needle-shaped crystals. C. Elemental S8 sulfur. Both crystal types showed very strong bands at about 470 cm−1 [sulfur–sulfur bond (S-S) stretching], 220 cm−1, and 151 cm−1 (both S8 bending), indicating that both crystal types consisted of rhombic S8 sulfur (Ward, 1968). Weaker bands at 245 cm−1 and 433 cm−1 also assignable to S8 sulfur (Trofimov et al., 2009) could be observed, while the additional peak at 187 cm−1 visible in the S8 sulfur spectrum was below background level. The main bands indicative for measured S8 sulfur are indicated by vertical dotted lines. The numbers indicate the position of the bands in S8 sulfur in cm-1. The numbers in brackets indicate the wave numbers for the respective sulfur band in both crystal types.

Mentions: EDX elemental analyses of isolated needle-shaped and orthorhombic crystals sputter coated with carbon confirmed the crystals were sulfur (Fig. 4). Raman microspectroscopic analysis of isolated and dried crystals with a spectral resolution of about 1.5 cm−1 (Eichinger et al., 2011) indicated that that both crystal types were composed of rhombic S8 sulfur (Fig. 5).


Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.

Eichinger I, Schmitz-Esser S, Schmid M, Fisher CR, Bright M - Environ Microbiol Rep (2014)

Raman microspectroscopy of the region between 100 cm−1 and 600 cm−1. A. Raman spectrum of orthorhombic crystals. B. Raman spectrum of needle-shaped crystals. C. Elemental S8 sulfur. Both crystal types showed very strong bands at about 470 cm−1 [sulfur–sulfur bond (S-S) stretching], 220 cm−1, and 151 cm−1 (both S8 bending), indicating that both crystal types consisted of rhombic S8 sulfur (Ward, 1968). Weaker bands at 245 cm−1 and 433 cm−1 also assignable to S8 sulfur (Trofimov et al., 2009) could be observed, while the additional peak at 187 cm−1 visible in the S8 sulfur spectrum was below background level. The main bands indicative for measured S8 sulfur are indicated by vertical dotted lines. The numbers indicate the position of the bands in S8 sulfur in cm-1. The numbers in brackets indicate the wave numbers for the respective sulfur band in both crystal types.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232855&req=5

fig05: Raman microspectroscopy of the region between 100 cm−1 and 600 cm−1. A. Raman spectrum of orthorhombic crystals. B. Raman spectrum of needle-shaped crystals. C. Elemental S8 sulfur. Both crystal types showed very strong bands at about 470 cm−1 [sulfur–sulfur bond (S-S) stretching], 220 cm−1, and 151 cm−1 (both S8 bending), indicating that both crystal types consisted of rhombic S8 sulfur (Ward, 1968). Weaker bands at 245 cm−1 and 433 cm−1 also assignable to S8 sulfur (Trofimov et al., 2009) could be observed, while the additional peak at 187 cm−1 visible in the S8 sulfur spectrum was below background level. The main bands indicative for measured S8 sulfur are indicated by vertical dotted lines. The numbers indicate the position of the bands in S8 sulfur in cm-1. The numbers in brackets indicate the wave numbers for the respective sulfur band in both crystal types.
Mentions: EDX elemental analyses of isolated needle-shaped and orthorhombic crystals sputter coated with carbon confirmed the crystals were sulfur (Fig. 4). Raman microspectroscopic analysis of isolated and dried crystals with a spectral resolution of about 1.5 cm−1 (Eichinger et al., 2011) indicated that that both crystal types were composed of rhombic S8 sulfur (Fig. 5).

Bottom Line: This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts.We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues.This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus