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Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.

Eichinger I, Schmitz-Esser S, Schmid M, Fisher CR, Bright M - Environ Microbiol Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts.We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues.This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

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Crystals deposited in the S. contortum trophosome. A. Whole specimen within the tube viewed under a dissecting microscope containing orthorhombic (arrowhead) and needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead). B–C. SEM of orthorhombic (B) and needle-shaped crystals (C). D. LM of whole mount of the posterior body region showing regions of densely packed needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead) interspersed by orthorhombic ones (arrowhead). E. LM of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted sample of the posterior trophosome. Crystals are limited to the trophosomal tissue located in the body cavity of the trunk. Ep, epidermis; ml, muscle layer; tr, trophosome.
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fig03: Crystals deposited in the S. contortum trophosome. A. Whole specimen within the tube viewed under a dissecting microscope containing orthorhombic (arrowhead) and needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead). B–C. SEM of orthorhombic (B) and needle-shaped crystals (C). D. LM of whole mount of the posterior body region showing regions of densely packed needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead) interspersed by orthorhombic ones (arrowhead). E. LM of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted sample of the posterior trophosome. Crystals are limited to the trophosomal tissue located in the body cavity of the trunk. Ep, epidermis; ml, muscle layer; tr, trophosome.

Mentions: Five specimens fixed in 4% formaldehyde buffered with 0.1 mol l–1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 5.4 to 8.6 cm in length, revealed abundant, giant crystals that were even visible through the worm's tube under the dissecting microscope (Fig. 3A). Two kinds of water insoluble crystals were detected: tightly packed needle-shaped crystals up to 50 μm in length interspersed with clumps of orthorhombic crystals up to 150 μm in length (Fig. 3B–D). LM of whole mounts indicated a restricted distribution of the crystals to the posterior trophosomal tissue, which is deeply buried in sulfidic mud in situ. Further examination of semithin sections of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted samples, infiltrated by Lowicryl HM20 resin (Supporting information) under the LM indicated the crystals were located in cavities between bacteriocytes filled with symbionts (Fig. 3E).


Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.

Eichinger I, Schmitz-Esser S, Schmid M, Fisher CR, Bright M - Environ Microbiol Rep (2014)

Crystals deposited in the S. contortum trophosome. A. Whole specimen within the tube viewed under a dissecting microscope containing orthorhombic (arrowhead) and needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead). B–C. SEM of orthorhombic (B) and needle-shaped crystals (C). D. LM of whole mount of the posterior body region showing regions of densely packed needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead) interspersed by orthorhombic ones (arrowhead). E. LM of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted sample of the posterior trophosome. Crystals are limited to the trophosomal tissue located in the body cavity of the trunk. Ep, epidermis; ml, muscle layer; tr, trophosome.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232855&req=5

fig03: Crystals deposited in the S. contortum trophosome. A. Whole specimen within the tube viewed under a dissecting microscope containing orthorhombic (arrowhead) and needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead). B–C. SEM of orthorhombic (B) and needle-shaped crystals (C). D. LM of whole mount of the posterior body region showing regions of densely packed needle-shaped crystals (double arrowhead) interspersed by orthorhombic ones (arrowhead). E. LM of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted sample of the posterior trophosome. Crystals are limited to the trophosomal tissue located in the body cavity of the trunk. Ep, epidermis; ml, muscle layer; tr, trophosome.
Mentions: Five specimens fixed in 4% formaldehyde buffered with 0.1 mol l–1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), 5.4 to 8.6 cm in length, revealed abundant, giant crystals that were even visible through the worm's tube under the dissecting microscope (Fig. 3A). Two kinds of water insoluble crystals were detected: tightly packed needle-shaped crystals up to 50 μm in length interspersed with clumps of orthorhombic crystals up to 150 μm in length (Fig. 3B–D). LM of whole mounts indicated a restricted distribution of the crystals to the posterior trophosomal tissue, which is deeply buried in sulfidic mud in situ. Further examination of semithin sections of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted samples, infiltrated by Lowicryl HM20 resin (Supporting information) under the LM indicated the crystals were located in cavities between bacteriocytes filled with symbionts (Fig. 3E).

Bottom Line: This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts.We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues.This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus