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Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.

Eichinger I, Schmitz-Esser S, Schmid M, Fisher CR, Bright M - Environ Microbiol Rep (2014)

Bottom Line: This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts.We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues.This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

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Phylogeny of the endosymbiont of S. contortum from the Gulf of Mexico and other gammaproteobacterial symbionts based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and ARB analyses (Ludwig et al., 2004). A consensus tree calculated by the raxml maximum-likelihood algorithm implemented in ARB is shown. A filter considering only positions, which are conserved in at least 50% of all gammaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences, was used for tree calculations. Maximum parsimony bootstrap values are depicted above the respective branches, raxml bootstrap values are shown below the respective branches; only bootstrap values above 90% are shown, GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. Alphaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences were used as out-group. The arrow points to the out-group, and the bar represents 10% estimated evolutionary distance. The sequence obtained in this study is highlighted in bold. GoM, Gulf of Mexico; HMMV, Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano.
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fig01: Phylogeny of the endosymbiont of S. contortum from the Gulf of Mexico and other gammaproteobacterial symbionts based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and ARB analyses (Ludwig et al., 2004). A consensus tree calculated by the raxml maximum-likelihood algorithm implemented in ARB is shown. A filter considering only positions, which are conserved in at least 50% of all gammaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences, was used for tree calculations. Maximum parsimony bootstrap values are depicted above the respective branches, raxml bootstrap values are shown below the respective branches; only bootstrap values above 90% are shown, GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. Alphaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences were used as out-group. The arrow points to the out-group, and the bar represents 10% estimated evolutionary distance. The sequence obtained in this study is highlighted in bold. GoM, Gulf of Mexico; HMMV, Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano.

Mentions: The S. contortum symbiont sequences formed a stable clade with the endosymbiont of the vestimentiferan Escarpia spicata (98.5% similarity) from a Guaymas Basin vent and an uncultured bacterium (98% similarity) associated with tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. from cold seeps of the Mediterranean Sea (Fig. 1). Double FISH with a symbiont-specific oligonucleotide probe and general probes specific for most Bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, respectively, confirmed the exclusive presence of the single symbiont 16S rRNA phylotype within the trophosome of four animals from two different locations (WR 269, AC 818) (Supporting information) (Fig. 2). The presence of the functional genes cbbM and aprA studied in the endosymbiont of the mud volcano population (Lösekann et al., 2008) indicate that this symbiont, like the symbiont of E. spicata, is a sulfur-oxidizing autotroph (Nelson and Fisher, 1995).


Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.

Eichinger I, Schmitz-Esser S, Schmid M, Fisher CR, Bright M - Environ Microbiol Rep (2014)

Phylogeny of the endosymbiont of S. contortum from the Gulf of Mexico and other gammaproteobacterial symbionts based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and ARB analyses (Ludwig et al., 2004). A consensus tree calculated by the raxml maximum-likelihood algorithm implemented in ARB is shown. A filter considering only positions, which are conserved in at least 50% of all gammaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences, was used for tree calculations. Maximum parsimony bootstrap values are depicted above the respective branches, raxml bootstrap values are shown below the respective branches; only bootstrap values above 90% are shown, GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. Alphaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences were used as out-group. The arrow points to the out-group, and the bar represents 10% estimated evolutionary distance. The sequence obtained in this study is highlighted in bold. GoM, Gulf of Mexico; HMMV, Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232855&req=5

fig01: Phylogeny of the endosymbiont of S. contortum from the Gulf of Mexico and other gammaproteobacterial symbionts based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and ARB analyses (Ludwig et al., 2004). A consensus tree calculated by the raxml maximum-likelihood algorithm implemented in ARB is shown. A filter considering only positions, which are conserved in at least 50% of all gammaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences, was used for tree calculations. Maximum parsimony bootstrap values are depicted above the respective branches, raxml bootstrap values are shown below the respective branches; only bootstrap values above 90% are shown, GenBank accession numbers are given in parentheses. Alphaproteobacterial 16S rRNA sequences were used as out-group. The arrow points to the out-group, and the bar represents 10% estimated evolutionary distance. The sequence obtained in this study is highlighted in bold. GoM, Gulf of Mexico; HMMV, Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano.
Mentions: The S. contortum symbiont sequences formed a stable clade with the endosymbiont of the vestimentiferan Escarpia spicata (98.5% similarity) from a Guaymas Basin vent and an uncultured bacterium (98% similarity) associated with tubes of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. from cold seeps of the Mediterranean Sea (Fig. 1). Double FISH with a symbiont-specific oligonucleotide probe and general probes specific for most Bacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, respectively, confirmed the exclusive presence of the single symbiont 16S rRNA phylotype within the trophosome of four animals from two different locations (WR 269, AC 818) (Supporting information) (Fig. 2). The presence of the functional genes cbbM and aprA studied in the endosymbiont of the mud volcano population (Lösekann et al., 2008) indicate that this symbiont, like the symbiont of E. spicata, is a sulfur-oxidizing autotroph (Nelson and Fisher, 1995).

Bottom Line: This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts.We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues.This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstr. 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus