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Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Williams SL, Janetski N, Abbott J, Blankenhorn S, Cheng B, Crafton RE, Hameed SO, Rapi S, Trockel D - Environ Manage (2014)

Bottom Line: Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported.The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times.The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bodega Marine Laboratory and Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California at Davis, PO Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA, 94923-0247, USA, slwilliams@ucdavis.edu.

ABSTRACT
Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

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Quantities of seahorses (Hippocampus) and other marine ornamental fishes imported from Indonesia into California (Los Angeles and San Francisco) in 2009 and listed by species or genus (i.e., not as ‘marine tropical fish’) in USFWS’s LEMIS database. H. comes (‘tiger tail’ seahorse), H. histrix (‘spiny’ or ‘thorny’ seahorse), H. barbouri (‘Barbour’s’ seahorse), H. kelloggi (‘great’ or ‘Kellogg’s’ seahorse), H. kuda (‘common’, ‘estuary’, or ‘yellow’ seahorse), H. spinosissimus (‘hedgehog’ seahorse), Pterapogon (‘Banggai’ cardinalfish), Pomacanthus (angelfish)
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Fig4: Quantities of seahorses (Hippocampus) and other marine ornamental fishes imported from Indonesia into California (Los Angeles and San Francisco) in 2009 and listed by species or genus (i.e., not as ‘marine tropical fish’) in USFWS’s LEMIS database. H. comes (‘tiger tail’ seahorse), H. histrix (‘spiny’ or ‘thorny’ seahorse), H. barbouri (‘Barbour’s’ seahorse), H. kelloggi (‘great’ or ‘Kellogg’s’ seahorse), H. kuda (‘common’, ‘estuary’, or ‘yellow’ seahorse), H. spinosissimus (‘hedgehog’ seahorse), Pterapogon (‘Banggai’ cardinalfish), Pomacanthus (angelfish)

Mentions: Specifically, considering seahorses from 2004 to 2012, Indonesia exported 52,712 individuals representing at least 14 (plus ‘Hippocampus spp.’) of the 26 species of Hippocampus reported in the CITES database and accounting for 9 % of the global importations. The United States was the major world importer (62 %) of seahorses, and the majority of Indonesia’s exports (65 %) were to the United States (Fig. 3). Indonesia exported 5,700 H.barbouri or 82 % of the global live trade in this species from 2004 to 2012. The United States was the major importer of H. barbouri (65 % of global share), and Indonesia supplied the majority of these importations (85 %). Indonesia also supplied the majority of the global trade in H. histrix (91 %) and H. spinosissimus (60 %), and was the sole exporter of H. denise. Furthermore, all or the majority of the Indonesian seahorse exports to the United States were landed in California, comparing CITES to LEMIS records. In 2009, 634 of 763 individuals or 83 % of all Indonesia seahorse exports landed in California (Fig. 4). In 2012, 100 % of Indonesia’s seahorse exports landed in Los Angeles.Fig. 3


Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Williams SL, Janetski N, Abbott J, Blankenhorn S, Cheng B, Crafton RE, Hameed SO, Rapi S, Trockel D - Environ Manage (2014)

Quantities of seahorses (Hippocampus) and other marine ornamental fishes imported from Indonesia into California (Los Angeles and San Francisco) in 2009 and listed by species or genus (i.e., not as ‘marine tropical fish’) in USFWS’s LEMIS database. H. comes (‘tiger tail’ seahorse), H. histrix (‘spiny’ or ‘thorny’ seahorse), H. barbouri (‘Barbour’s’ seahorse), H. kelloggi (‘great’ or ‘Kellogg’s’ seahorse), H. kuda (‘common’, ‘estuary’, or ‘yellow’ seahorse), H. spinosissimus (‘hedgehog’ seahorse), Pterapogon (‘Banggai’ cardinalfish), Pomacanthus (angelfish)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232751&req=5

Fig4: Quantities of seahorses (Hippocampus) and other marine ornamental fishes imported from Indonesia into California (Los Angeles and San Francisco) in 2009 and listed by species or genus (i.e., not as ‘marine tropical fish’) in USFWS’s LEMIS database. H. comes (‘tiger tail’ seahorse), H. histrix (‘spiny’ or ‘thorny’ seahorse), H. barbouri (‘Barbour’s’ seahorse), H. kelloggi (‘great’ or ‘Kellogg’s’ seahorse), H. kuda (‘common’, ‘estuary’, or ‘yellow’ seahorse), H. spinosissimus (‘hedgehog’ seahorse), Pterapogon (‘Banggai’ cardinalfish), Pomacanthus (angelfish)
Mentions: Specifically, considering seahorses from 2004 to 2012, Indonesia exported 52,712 individuals representing at least 14 (plus ‘Hippocampus spp.’) of the 26 species of Hippocampus reported in the CITES database and accounting for 9 % of the global importations. The United States was the major world importer (62 %) of seahorses, and the majority of Indonesia’s exports (65 %) were to the United States (Fig. 3). Indonesia exported 5,700 H.barbouri or 82 % of the global live trade in this species from 2004 to 2012. The United States was the major importer of H. barbouri (65 % of global share), and Indonesia supplied the majority of these importations (85 %). Indonesia also supplied the majority of the global trade in H. histrix (91 %) and H. spinosissimus (60 %), and was the sole exporter of H. denise. Furthermore, all or the majority of the Indonesian seahorse exports to the United States were landed in California, comparing CITES to LEMIS records. In 2009, 634 of 763 individuals or 83 % of all Indonesia seahorse exports landed in California (Fig. 4). In 2012, 100 % of Indonesia’s seahorse exports landed in Los Angeles.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported.The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times.The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bodega Marine Laboratory and Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California at Davis, PO Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA, 94923-0247, USA, slwilliams@ucdavis.edu.

ABSTRACT
Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus