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Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Williams SL, Janetski N, Abbott J, Blankenhorn S, Cheng B, Crafton RE, Hameed SO, Rapi S, Trockel D - Environ Manage (2014)

Bottom Line: Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported.The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times.The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bodega Marine Laboratory and Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California at Davis, PO Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA, 94923-0247, USA, slwilliams@ucdavis.edu.

ABSTRACT
Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

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Map of southwest Sulawesi showing Pulau Badi (location of the kuda laut project) in the Spermonde Islands, Makassar, and the Paotere fish market
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Fig1: Map of southwest Sulawesi showing Pulau Badi (location of the kuda laut project) in the Spermonde Islands, Makassar, and the Paotere fish market

Mentions: To address this gap in practical knowledge, we provide a case history of a demonstration project for OMS culture in the Spermonde Islands (hereafter ‘Spermondes’) off southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia (Fig. 1). The intrinsic isolation of island communities such as the Spermondes can strongly shape their response to management plans, particularly no-take zoning, and their willingness to depart from fishing activities (Webb et al. 2004). The Spermondes are representative of many locales within the Coral Triangle where fishing historically and presently provides the major livelihood, with few alternatives (Ferse et al. 2012a, b). The Spermondes are densely populated, water-limited, and agriculture is not a viable livelihood. Communities in the Spermondes depend on dwindling fisheries for food and income to send their children to school (Pet-Soede et al. 1999, 2001, 2011; Ferse et al. 2012b); islanders report that life and fishing have not been good since the 1960s. Fishermen face higher risk as they must travel farther and dive deeper for valuable species (Reksodihardjo-Lilley and Lilley 2007; Máñez and Ferse 2010). Fishermen are also indebted to their fishing patrons who are the middlemen in the supply chain to the local and international markets (Ferse et al. 2012a). The reefs and seagrass beds are under high threat from illegal bomb or blast fishing and pollution (Edinger et al. 1998; Pet-Soede and Erdmann 1998; Nadiarti et al. 2012). The marine habitats are too degraded to attract significant international ecotourism, with few exceptions. Although no-take areas were selected in each Spermondes village as part of Indonesia’s highly developed and supported Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management (COREMAP) program, implementation of no-take areas and community-based management plans has not been fully successful (White et al. 2005; Clifton 2009; Glaser et al. 2010; Radjawali 2012). Non-fishing economic activities, such as aquaculture, have been recommended as a means to improve the success of coastal management as well as human welfare (Radjawali 2012).Fig. 1


Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Williams SL, Janetski N, Abbott J, Blankenhorn S, Cheng B, Crafton RE, Hameed SO, Rapi S, Trockel D - Environ Manage (2014)

Map of southwest Sulawesi showing Pulau Badi (location of the kuda laut project) in the Spermonde Islands, Makassar, and the Paotere fish market
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232751&req=5

Fig1: Map of southwest Sulawesi showing Pulau Badi (location of the kuda laut project) in the Spermonde Islands, Makassar, and the Paotere fish market
Mentions: To address this gap in practical knowledge, we provide a case history of a demonstration project for OMS culture in the Spermonde Islands (hereafter ‘Spermondes’) off southwest Sulawesi, Indonesia (Fig. 1). The intrinsic isolation of island communities such as the Spermondes can strongly shape their response to management plans, particularly no-take zoning, and their willingness to depart from fishing activities (Webb et al. 2004). The Spermondes are representative of many locales within the Coral Triangle where fishing historically and presently provides the major livelihood, with few alternatives (Ferse et al. 2012a, b). The Spermondes are densely populated, water-limited, and agriculture is not a viable livelihood. Communities in the Spermondes depend on dwindling fisheries for food and income to send their children to school (Pet-Soede et al. 1999, 2001, 2011; Ferse et al. 2012b); islanders report that life and fishing have not been good since the 1960s. Fishermen face higher risk as they must travel farther and dive deeper for valuable species (Reksodihardjo-Lilley and Lilley 2007; Máñez and Ferse 2010). Fishermen are also indebted to their fishing patrons who are the middlemen in the supply chain to the local and international markets (Ferse et al. 2012a). The reefs and seagrass beds are under high threat from illegal bomb or blast fishing and pollution (Edinger et al. 1998; Pet-Soede and Erdmann 1998; Nadiarti et al. 2012). The marine habitats are too degraded to attract significant international ecotourism, with few exceptions. Although no-take areas were selected in each Spermondes village as part of Indonesia’s highly developed and supported Coral Reef Rehabilitation and Management (COREMAP) program, implementation of no-take areas and community-based management plans has not been fully successful (White et al. 2005; Clifton 2009; Glaser et al. 2010; Radjawali 2012). Non-fishing economic activities, such as aquaculture, have been recommended as a means to improve the success of coastal management as well as human welfare (Radjawali 2012).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported.The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times.The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Bodega Marine Laboratory and Department of Evolution and Ecology, University of California at Davis, PO Box 247, Bodega Bay, CA, 94923-0247, USA, slwilliams@ucdavis.edu.

ABSTRACT
Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus