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Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing VEGF expression and up-regulating the expression of connexin 43.

Dai S, Liu J, Sun X, Wang N - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

Bottom Line: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Reishimax) is an herbal mushroom known to have inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth.G. lucidum treatment resulted in reduced proliferation of HOCC.Furthermore, knockdown of Cx43 expression in HOCC abrogated the effect of G. lucidum on cell proliferation without alteration of G. lucidum-induced attenuation of VEGF expression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Affiliated Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Heping district, Shenyang 110004, People's Republic of China. daishy2014@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Reishimax) is an herbal mushroom known to have inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its anti-proliferative effects on the ovarian cancer have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: Human ovarian cancer cells HO 8910 (HOCC) and human primary ovarian cells (HPOC) were treated with G. lucidum. Effects of G. lucidum treatment on cell proliferation were studied by MTT assay. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connexin 43 (Cx43) were measured by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. To study the molecular mechanism of CX43 mediated anti-tumor activity, small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown Cx43 expression in HOCC.

Results: G. lucidum treatment resulted in reduced proliferation of HOCC. Inhibition of proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in VEGF expression and increase in Cx43 expression in the cancer cells. The extent of immune-reactivity of Cx43 or VEGF in cancer cells were correlated with the concentrations of G. lucidum used for treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of Cx43 expression in HOCC abrogated the effect of G. lucidum on cell proliferation without alteration of G. lucidum-induced attenuation of VEGF expression.

Conclusions: G. lucidum inhibits ovarian cancer by down-regulating the expression of VEGF and up-regulating the downstream Cx43 expression. G. lucidum may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

The relative levels of Cx43 and VEGF mRNA in HOCC and HPOC. "-" stands for untreated group (control). "+" stands for G. lucidum-treated group at dose of 10 ug/ml. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. All the cells were treated with G. lucidum for successive 3 days. *P < 0.05 vs respective day 0; †P < 0.05 vs corresponding untreated group.
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Fig2: The relative levels of Cx43 and VEGF mRNA in HOCC and HPOC. "-" stands for untreated group (control). "+" stands for G. lucidum-treated group at dose of 10 ug/ml. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. All the cells were treated with G. lucidum for successive 3 days. *P < 0.05 vs respective day 0; †P < 0.05 vs corresponding untreated group.

Mentions: The expression of Cx43 mRNA increased after 3 days of culture (P <0.05) in both untreated and G. lucidum-treated groups, compared with day 0 in HPOC cells (Figure 2). The VEGF mRNA expression in untreated group remained constant during 3 days of culture. However, VEGF mRNA expression in G.lucidum-treated group was found to be significantly reduced on day 3 in the HPOC cells. The expression of Cx43 mRNA decreased in the untreated group at day 2 and day 3 in HOCC cells. In contrast, the Cx43 mRNA expression in G. lucidum-treated group significantly increased from day 1 and remained at a high level on day 3. The VEGF mRNA expression in untreated group significantly increased by day 2 and continued to increase on day 3. However, no significant change in VEGF mRNA expression was observed in G. lucidum-treated group during the 3 days of culture. These data indicate that G. lucidum treatment effectively increases Cx43 mRNA expression and inhibits VEGF mRNA expression in HOCC but not in HPCC.Figure 2


Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation of human ovarian cancer cells by suppressing VEGF expression and up-regulating the expression of connexin 43.

Dai S, Liu J, Sun X, Wang N - BMC Complement Altern Med (2014)

The relative levels of Cx43 and VEGF mRNA in HOCC and HPOC. "-" stands for untreated group (control). "+" stands for G. lucidum-treated group at dose of 10 ug/ml. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. All the cells were treated with G. lucidum for successive 3 days. *P < 0.05 vs respective day 0; †P < 0.05 vs corresponding untreated group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232730&req=5

Fig2: The relative levels of Cx43 and VEGF mRNA in HOCC and HPOC. "-" stands for untreated group (control). "+" stands for G. lucidum-treated group at dose of 10 ug/ml. Data are shown as mean ± S.D. of three independent experiments. All the cells were treated with G. lucidum for successive 3 days. *P < 0.05 vs respective day 0; †P < 0.05 vs corresponding untreated group.
Mentions: The expression of Cx43 mRNA increased after 3 days of culture (P <0.05) in both untreated and G. lucidum-treated groups, compared with day 0 in HPOC cells (Figure 2). The VEGF mRNA expression in untreated group remained constant during 3 days of culture. However, VEGF mRNA expression in G.lucidum-treated group was found to be significantly reduced on day 3 in the HPOC cells. The expression of Cx43 mRNA decreased in the untreated group at day 2 and day 3 in HOCC cells. In contrast, the Cx43 mRNA expression in G. lucidum-treated group significantly increased from day 1 and remained at a high level on day 3. The VEGF mRNA expression in untreated group significantly increased by day 2 and continued to increase on day 3. However, no significant change in VEGF mRNA expression was observed in G. lucidum-treated group during the 3 days of culture. These data indicate that G. lucidum treatment effectively increases Cx43 mRNA expression and inhibits VEGF mRNA expression in HOCC but not in HPCC.Figure 2

Bottom Line: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Reishimax) is an herbal mushroom known to have inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth.G. lucidum treatment resulted in reduced proliferation of HOCC.Furthermore, knockdown of Cx43 expression in HOCC abrogated the effect of G. lucidum on cell proliferation without alteration of G. lucidum-induced attenuation of VEGF expression.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Affiliated Shengjing Hospital, China Medical University, 36 Sanhao Street, Heping district, Shenyang 110004, People's Republic of China. daishy2014@163.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum, Reishimax) is an herbal mushroom known to have inhibitory effect on tumor cell growth. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for its anti-proliferative effects on the ovarian cancer have not been fully elucidated.

Methods: Human ovarian cancer cells HO 8910 (HOCC) and human primary ovarian cells (HPOC) were treated with G. lucidum. Effects of G. lucidum treatment on cell proliferation were studied by MTT assay. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and connexin 43 (Cx43) were measured by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. To study the molecular mechanism of CX43 mediated anti-tumor activity, small interference RNA (siRNA) was used to knockdown Cx43 expression in HOCC.

Results: G. lucidum treatment resulted in reduced proliferation of HOCC. Inhibition of proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in VEGF expression and increase in Cx43 expression in the cancer cells. The extent of immune-reactivity of Cx43 or VEGF in cancer cells were correlated with the concentrations of G. lucidum used for treatment. Furthermore, knockdown of Cx43 expression in HOCC abrogated the effect of G. lucidum on cell proliferation without alteration of G. lucidum-induced attenuation of VEGF expression.

Conclusions: G. lucidum inhibits ovarian cancer by down-regulating the expression of VEGF and up-regulating the downstream Cx43 expression. G. lucidum may be a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus