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Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

DT images of grape berries at five different stages of berry development (longitudinal plane). The images include a pre-véraison grape at 55 DAF (A, voxel size 156 × 156 × 1000 μm), a grape undergoing véraison at 70 DAF (B, voxel size 164 × 164 × 1000 μm), a ripening grape at 85 DAF (C, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm), a grape which is at oenological maturity at 95 DAF (D, voxel size 125 × 125 × 1000 μm) and a post-maturity berry at 109 DAF (E, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm). No images are available for 28 and 41 DAF. The colours in the figure indicate the direction of least restricted diffusion, as indicated by the image in the bottom right side of the figure. Images are not available for 28 and 41 DAF. Scale bar: 3 mm.
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Fig8: DT images of grape berries at five different stages of berry development (longitudinal plane). The images include a pre-véraison grape at 55 DAF (A, voxel size 156 × 156 × 1000 μm), a grape undergoing véraison at 70 DAF (B, voxel size 164 × 164 × 1000 μm), a ripening grape at 85 DAF (C, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm), a grape which is at oenological maturity at 95 DAF (D, voxel size 125 × 125 × 1000 μm) and a post-maturity berry at 109 DAF (E, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm). No images are available for 28 and 41 DAF. The colours in the figure indicate the direction of least restricted diffusion, as indicated by the image in the bottom right side of the figure. Images are not available for 28 and 41 DAF. Scale bar: 3 mm.

Mentions: In the transverse relaxation images, the exocarp was difficult to distinguish from the outer mesocarp (Figures 4 and5). The exocarp was consistently associated with the shortest mean T2 at all sampled stages of grape berry development, relative to the other tissues examined (Figure 6). The diffusion vectors of the exocarp were prominently aligned tangential to the berry surface (Figures 7,8 and9). This pattern was consistent for the exocarp of all grape berries imaged, regardless of berry age. The exocarp was also found to have short mean diffusivity values relative to the other tissues (Figure 10).Figure 4


Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

DT images of grape berries at five different stages of berry development (longitudinal plane). The images include a pre-véraison grape at 55 DAF (A, voxel size 156 × 156 × 1000 μm), a grape undergoing véraison at 70 DAF (B, voxel size 164 × 164 × 1000 μm), a ripening grape at 85 DAF (C, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm), a grape which is at oenological maturity at 95 DAF (D, voxel size 125 × 125 × 1000 μm) and a post-maturity berry at 109 DAF (E, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm). No images are available for 28 and 41 DAF. The colours in the figure indicate the direction of least restricted diffusion, as indicated by the image in the bottom right side of the figure. Images are not available for 28 and 41 DAF. Scale bar: 3 mm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232727&req=5

Fig8: DT images of grape berries at five different stages of berry development (longitudinal plane). The images include a pre-véraison grape at 55 DAF (A, voxel size 156 × 156 × 1000 μm), a grape undergoing véraison at 70 DAF (B, voxel size 164 × 164 × 1000 μm), a ripening grape at 85 DAF (C, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm), a grape which is at oenological maturity at 95 DAF (D, voxel size 125 × 125 × 1000 μm) and a post-maturity berry at 109 DAF (E, voxel size 172 × 172 × 1000 μm). No images are available for 28 and 41 DAF. The colours in the figure indicate the direction of least restricted diffusion, as indicated by the image in the bottom right side of the figure. Images are not available for 28 and 41 DAF. Scale bar: 3 mm.
Mentions: In the transverse relaxation images, the exocarp was difficult to distinguish from the outer mesocarp (Figures 4 and5). The exocarp was consistently associated with the shortest mean T2 at all sampled stages of grape berry development, relative to the other tissues examined (Figure 6). The diffusion vectors of the exocarp were prominently aligned tangential to the berry surface (Figures 7,8 and9). This pattern was consistent for the exocarp of all grape berries imaged, regardless of berry age. The exocarp was also found to have short mean diffusivity values relative to the other tissues (Figure 10).Figure 4

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus