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Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tissue regions of the grape berry (transverse plane). Here the five tissue regions of the grape berry are provided with reference to a transverse relaxation image (A) and a diffusion tensor image (B). Ex: exocarp, OM: outer mesocarp, IM: inner mesocarp, S: septum, SI: seed interior. The outer, black dashed curve indicates the border between the outer mesocarp and the inner mesocarp while the inner, black dashed curve indicates the border between the inner mesocarp and the septum.
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Fig2: Tissue regions of the grape berry (transverse plane). Here the five tissue regions of the grape berry are provided with reference to a transverse relaxation image (A) and a diffusion tensor image (B). Ex: exocarp, OM: outer mesocarp, IM: inner mesocarp, S: septum, SI: seed interior. The outer, black dashed curve indicates the border between the outer mesocarp and the inner mesocarp while the inner, black dashed curve indicates the border between the inner mesocarp and the septum.

Mentions: For the analysis of the DT and transverse relaxation images, each grape berry was divided into four pericarp tissue groups (FigureĀ 2); the exocarp, outer mesocarp, inner mesocarp and septum[30, 31]. The exocarp was defined as the outer epidermis and outer hypodermis tissue of the grape berry. The outer mesocarp was considered to be the tissue between the outer hypodermis and the tissue exterior to the peripheral vascular bundles, while the inner mesocarp was considered to be the tissue inwards from the peripheral vascular bundles. The septum was defined as the irregular tissue found at the centre of the grape berry adjacent to the berry seed(s) and locule(s). The endocarp was not considered in the analysis because it was beyond the resolution of the relaxation images. The seed interior was considered separately from the listed pericarp tissues. Each region in the images was analysed independently from all other regions by the application of image masks. These image masks were based on the tissue groups visible in the transverse relaxation images (in the manner explained previously).Figure 2


Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Tissue regions of the grape berry (transverse plane). Here the five tissue regions of the grape berry are provided with reference to a transverse relaxation image (A) and a diffusion tensor image (B). Ex: exocarp, OM: outer mesocarp, IM: inner mesocarp, S: septum, SI: seed interior. The outer, black dashed curve indicates the border between the outer mesocarp and the inner mesocarp while the inner, black dashed curve indicates the border between the inner mesocarp and the septum.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232727&req=5

Fig2: Tissue regions of the grape berry (transverse plane). Here the five tissue regions of the grape berry are provided with reference to a transverse relaxation image (A) and a diffusion tensor image (B). Ex: exocarp, OM: outer mesocarp, IM: inner mesocarp, S: septum, SI: seed interior. The outer, black dashed curve indicates the border between the outer mesocarp and the inner mesocarp while the inner, black dashed curve indicates the border between the inner mesocarp and the septum.
Mentions: For the analysis of the DT and transverse relaxation images, each grape berry was divided into four pericarp tissue groups (FigureĀ 2); the exocarp, outer mesocarp, inner mesocarp and septum[30, 31]. The exocarp was defined as the outer epidermis and outer hypodermis tissue of the grape berry. The outer mesocarp was considered to be the tissue between the outer hypodermis and the tissue exterior to the peripheral vascular bundles, while the inner mesocarp was considered to be the tissue inwards from the peripheral vascular bundles. The septum was defined as the irregular tissue found at the centre of the grape berry adjacent to the berry seed(s) and locule(s). The endocarp was not considered in the analysis because it was beyond the resolution of the relaxation images. The seed interior was considered separately from the listed pericarp tissues. Each region in the images was analysed independently from all other regions by the application of image masks. These image masks were based on the tissue groups visible in the transverse relaxation images (in the manner explained previously).Figure 2

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus