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Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Confocal micrograph of the pericarp of a grape berry prior to véraison 41 DAF (transverse plane). The image was acquired using a confocal microscope (LSM5 Pascal; Zeiss, Germany) which employed a 488 nm Argon laser and a 10 × objective Plan-Apochromatic lens. Bar length 1000 μm.
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Fig15: Confocal micrograph of the pericarp of a grape berry prior to véraison 41 DAF (transverse plane). The image was acquired using a confocal microscope (LSM5 Pascal; Zeiss, Germany) which employed a 488 nm Argon laser and a 10 × objective Plan-Apochromatic lens. Bar length 1000 μm.

Mentions: The anisotropic diffusion patterns observed in the grape berry pericarp were due to the restricting effects of cell membranes on diffusion. For example, in the mesocarp of grape berries 28 DAF, the diffusion anisotropy exhibited low coherence. This was because the parenchyma cells of the mesocarp were not fully elongated[32], as demonstrated by confocal microscopy (Figure 15). Between 41 DAF and 95 DAF, however, the anisotropic diffusion pattern was clearly radially dependent, thus reflecting the radial orientations of the elongated inner mesocarp cells[3, 30, 32], as shown by confocal microscopy (Figure 16). The orientations of the diffusion vectors in the inner mesocarp were also preferentially parallel to the radial striation patterns visible in the transverse relaxation images, a relationship that will be discussed further below.Figure 15


Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Confocal micrograph of the pericarp of a grape berry prior to véraison 41 DAF (transverse plane). The image was acquired using a confocal microscope (LSM5 Pascal; Zeiss, Germany) which employed a 488 nm Argon laser and a 10 × objective Plan-Apochromatic lens. Bar length 1000 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232727&req=5

Fig15: Confocal micrograph of the pericarp of a grape berry prior to véraison 41 DAF (transverse plane). The image was acquired using a confocal microscope (LSM5 Pascal; Zeiss, Germany) which employed a 488 nm Argon laser and a 10 × objective Plan-Apochromatic lens. Bar length 1000 μm.
Mentions: The anisotropic diffusion patterns observed in the grape berry pericarp were due to the restricting effects of cell membranes on diffusion. For example, in the mesocarp of grape berries 28 DAF, the diffusion anisotropy exhibited low coherence. This was because the parenchyma cells of the mesocarp were not fully elongated[32], as demonstrated by confocal microscopy (Figure 15). Between 41 DAF and 95 DAF, however, the anisotropic diffusion pattern was clearly radially dependent, thus reflecting the radial orientations of the elongated inner mesocarp cells[3, 30, 32], as shown by confocal microscopy (Figure 16). The orientations of the diffusion vectors in the inner mesocarp were also preferentially parallel to the radial striation patterns visible in the transverse relaxation images, a relationship that will be discussed further below.Figure 15

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus