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Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean ADC map of a grape berry 55 DAF (transverse plane). Voxel size 78 × 78 × 1000 μm, bar length: 3000 μm.
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Fig11: Mean ADC map of a grape berry 55 DAF (transverse plane). Voxel size 78 × 78 × 1000 μm, bar length: 3000 μm.

Mentions: A notable feature in the transverse relaxation images of the inner mesocarp was the clear radial striation patterns with distinctly different (Tukey-Kramer test, P =0.05) T2 values. These patterns were observed in both transverse and longitudinal image orientations for the inner mesocarp (Figures 4 and5) of grape berries between 28 DAF and 109 DAF. The striation pattern radiated throughout the entire sub-tissue, starting close to the septum and vascular systems at the centre of the berry (i.e., at the ovular and axial vascular network), and terminating at the interface between the inner and outer mesocarp. In addition, upon analysing the high resolution DT image of a grape berry 55 DAF (Figure 11), a statistically significant difference (Tukey-Kramer test, P =0.05) was noted between the mean secondary and tertiary eigenvalues across the striation bands (Table 2). Prior to 95 DAF, the mean T2 of the inner mesocarp was consistently higher than other tissues (Figure 6). After the concentration of soluble solids plateaued, the mean T2 of this tissue declined, accompanied by a partial loss of its radial striation pattern. The diffusion vectors of the inner mesocarp had a rotational dependency similar to that of the outer mesocarp. Furthermore, the diffusion vectors were predominantly parallel to the radial striation bands (Figures 7,8 and9), except for grape berries 28 DAF or past 95 DAF (Figure 12). After véraison, the inner mesocarp was also consistently associated with the largest mean diffusivity values, relative to the other tissues examined (Figure 10).Figure 11


Use of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to correlate the developmental changes in grape berry tissue structure with water diffusion patterns.

Dean RJ, Stait-Gardner T, Clarke SJ, Rogiers SY, Bobek G, Price WS - Plant Methods (2014)

Mean ADC map of a grape berry 55 DAF (transverse plane). Voxel size 78 × 78 × 1000 μm, bar length: 3000 μm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232727&req=5

Fig11: Mean ADC map of a grape berry 55 DAF (transverse plane). Voxel size 78 × 78 × 1000 μm, bar length: 3000 μm.
Mentions: A notable feature in the transverse relaxation images of the inner mesocarp was the clear radial striation patterns with distinctly different (Tukey-Kramer test, P =0.05) T2 values. These patterns were observed in both transverse and longitudinal image orientations for the inner mesocarp (Figures 4 and5) of grape berries between 28 DAF and 109 DAF. The striation pattern radiated throughout the entire sub-tissue, starting close to the septum and vascular systems at the centre of the berry (i.e., at the ovular and axial vascular network), and terminating at the interface between the inner and outer mesocarp. In addition, upon analysing the high resolution DT image of a grape berry 55 DAF (Figure 11), a statistically significant difference (Tukey-Kramer test, P =0.05) was noted between the mean secondary and tertiary eigenvalues across the striation bands (Table 2). Prior to 95 DAF, the mean T2 of the inner mesocarp was consistently higher than other tissues (Figure 6). After the concentration of soluble solids plateaued, the mean T2 of this tissue declined, accompanied by a partial loss of its radial striation pattern. The diffusion vectors of the inner mesocarp had a rotational dependency similar to that of the outer mesocarp. Furthermore, the diffusion vectors were predominantly parallel to the radial striation bands (Figures 7,8 and9), except for grape berries 28 DAF or past 95 DAF (Figure 12). After véraison, the inner mesocarp was also consistently associated with the largest mean diffusivity values, relative to the other tissues examined (Figure 10).Figure 11

Bottom Line: A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv.Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Nanoscale Organisation and Dynamics Group, University of Western Sydney, Penrith, NSW 2751 Australia.

ABSTRACT

Background: Over the course of grape berry development, the tissues of the berry undergo numerous morphological transformations in response to processes such as water and solute accumulation and cell division, growth and senescence. These transformations are expected to produce changes to the diffusion of water through these tissues detectable using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). To assess this non-invasive technique diffusion was examined over the course of grape berry development, and in plant tissues with contrasting oil content.

Results: In this study, the fruit of Vitis vinfera L. cv. Semillon at seven different stages of berry development, from four weeks post-anthesis to over-ripe, were imaged using diffusion tensor and transverse relaxation MRI acquisition protocols. Variations in diffusive motion between these stages of development were then linked to known events in the morphological development of the grape berry. Within the inner mesocarp of the berry, preferential directions of diffusion became increasingly apparent as immature berries increased in size and then declined as berries progressed through the ripening and senescence phases. Transverse relaxation images showed radial striation patterns throughout the sub-tissue, initiating at the septum and vascular systems located at the centre of the berry, and terminating at the boundary between the inner and outer mesocarp. This study confirms that these radial patterns are due to bands of cells of alternating width that extend across the inner mesocarp. Preferential directions of diffusion were also noted in young grape seed nucelli prior to their dehydration. These observations point towards a strong association between patterns of diffusion within grape berries and the underlying tissue structures across berry development. A diffusion tensor image of a post-harvest olive demonstrated that the technique is applicable to tissues with high oil content.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that diffusion MRI is a powerful and information rich technique for probing the internal microstructure of plant tissues. It was shown that macroscopic diffusion anisotropy patterns correlate with the microstructure of the major pericarp tissues of cv. Semillon grape berries, and that changes in grape berry tissue structure during berry development can be observed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus