Limits...
Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer).

Smitz N, Cornélis D, Chardonnet P, Caron A, de Garine-Wichatitsky M, Jori F, Mouton A, Latinne A, Pigneur LM, Melletti M, Kanapeckas KL, Marescaux J, Pereira CL, Michaux J - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases.We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes.The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the "genetic health" of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites.

Results: The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (A r ) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (P a ) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean F IS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (F IS = 0.062, mean A r = 6.160, P a = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century.

Conclusions: We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Map of Africa representing the 19 sampling localities ofS. c. cafferanalysed in this study. Grey shapes on the map represent the actual distribution of the African buffalo according to the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group, 2008. Blue shapes represent past distributions according to Furstenburg 1970–2008 (personal unpublished field notes). A. South Africa, B. Mozambique, C. Zimbabwe, D. Botswana, E. Zambia, F. Angola, 1. Kruger, 2. Hluhluwe-iMfolozi, 3. Niassa, 4. Limpopo, 5. Manguana, 6. Gorongosa, 7. Marromeu, 8. Nyakasanga, 9. Malilangwe, 10. Crooks Corner, 11. Mana Pools, 12. Gonarezhou, 13. Hwange, 14. Sengwe, 15. Victoria Falls, 16. Chobe, 17. Okavango Delta, 18. Angola, 19. Zambia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232705&req=5

Fig1: Map of Africa representing the 19 sampling localities ofS. c. cafferanalysed in this study. Grey shapes on the map represent the actual distribution of the African buffalo according to the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group, 2008. Blue shapes represent past distributions according to Furstenburg 1970–2008 (personal unpublished field notes). A. South Africa, B. Mozambique, C. Zimbabwe, D. Botswana, E. Zambia, F. Angola, 1. Kruger, 2. Hluhluwe-iMfolozi, 3. Niassa, 4. Limpopo, 5. Manguana, 6. Gorongosa, 7. Marromeu, 8. Nyakasanga, 9. Malilangwe, 10. Crooks Corner, 11. Mana Pools, 12. Gonarezhou, 13. Hwange, 14. Sengwe, 15. Victoria Falls, 16. Chobe, 17. Okavango Delta, 18. Angola, 19. Zambia.

Mentions: Our collection of samples was compiled in collaboration with researchers having the required permits from the relevant national departments: the IGF foundation (Fondation Internationale pour la Gestion de la Faune- France) obtained authorization from the Department of Conservation of the Gorongosa National Park (GNP- Mozambique); CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement – France, Botswana) obtained the relevant permits from the parks and wildlife management authorities in Bostwana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe; Mario Melletti obtained the relevant permits to export samples from the wildlife management authorities of Zimbabwe and the University of Pretoria (South Africa) from the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi National Park. All partners obtained the ethical approval from their institution for the sampling procedure. The animal sampling protocols did not induce pain or distress according to the Animal Care Resource Guide (USDA category C). To facilitate the procedure, sampling of peripheral tissue (i.e. ear) or hair required the capture of buffalo through chemical immobilisation. The animals were released under veterinary supervision in favourable conditions. A total of 264 S. caffer caffer samples were collected at 19 localities in 6 countries (Figure 1, Table 1). Hair and tissue samples were stored in 96% ethanol. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples using the DNeasy Tissue Kit (QIAGEN Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.Figure 1


Genetic structure of fragmented southern populations of African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer).

Smitz N, Cornélis D, Chardonnet P, Caron A, de Garine-Wichatitsky M, Jori F, Mouton A, Latinne A, Pigneur LM, Melletti M, Kanapeckas KL, Marescaux J, Pereira CL, Michaux J - BMC Evol. Biol. (2014)

Map of Africa representing the 19 sampling localities ofS. c. cafferanalysed in this study. Grey shapes on the map represent the actual distribution of the African buffalo according to the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group, 2008. Blue shapes represent past distributions according to Furstenburg 1970–2008 (personal unpublished field notes). A. South Africa, B. Mozambique, C. Zimbabwe, D. Botswana, E. Zambia, F. Angola, 1. Kruger, 2. Hluhluwe-iMfolozi, 3. Niassa, 4. Limpopo, 5. Manguana, 6. Gorongosa, 7. Marromeu, 8. Nyakasanga, 9. Malilangwe, 10. Crooks Corner, 11. Mana Pools, 12. Gonarezhou, 13. Hwange, 14. Sengwe, 15. Victoria Falls, 16. Chobe, 17. Okavango Delta, 18. Angola, 19. Zambia.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232705&req=5

Fig1: Map of Africa representing the 19 sampling localities ofS. c. cafferanalysed in this study. Grey shapes on the map represent the actual distribution of the African buffalo according to the IUCN Antelope Specialist Group, 2008. Blue shapes represent past distributions according to Furstenburg 1970–2008 (personal unpublished field notes). A. South Africa, B. Mozambique, C. Zimbabwe, D. Botswana, E. Zambia, F. Angola, 1. Kruger, 2. Hluhluwe-iMfolozi, 3. Niassa, 4. Limpopo, 5. Manguana, 6. Gorongosa, 7. Marromeu, 8. Nyakasanga, 9. Malilangwe, 10. Crooks Corner, 11. Mana Pools, 12. Gonarezhou, 13. Hwange, 14. Sengwe, 15. Victoria Falls, 16. Chobe, 17. Okavango Delta, 18. Angola, 19. Zambia.
Mentions: Our collection of samples was compiled in collaboration with researchers having the required permits from the relevant national departments: the IGF foundation (Fondation Internationale pour la Gestion de la Faune- France) obtained authorization from the Department of Conservation of the Gorongosa National Park (GNP- Mozambique); CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement – France, Botswana) obtained the relevant permits from the parks and wildlife management authorities in Bostwana, Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe; Mario Melletti obtained the relevant permits to export samples from the wildlife management authorities of Zimbabwe and the University of Pretoria (South Africa) from the Hluhluwe-iMfolozi National Park. All partners obtained the ethical approval from their institution for the sampling procedure. The animal sampling protocols did not induce pain or distress according to the Animal Care Resource Guide (USDA category C). To facilitate the procedure, sampling of peripheral tissue (i.e. ear) or hair required the capture of buffalo through chemical immobilisation. The animals were released under veterinary supervision in favourable conditions. A total of 264 S. caffer caffer samples were collected at 19 localities in 6 countries (Figure 1, Table 1). Hair and tissue samples were stored in 96% ethanol. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples using the DNeasy Tissue Kit (QIAGEN Inc.) according to the manufacturer’s protocol.Figure 1

Bottom Line: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases.We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes.The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: African wildlife experienced a reduction in population size and geographical distribution over the last millennium, particularly since the 19th century as a result of human demographic expansion, wildlife overexploitation, habitat degradation and cattle-borne diseases. In many areas, ungulate populations are now largely confined within a network of loosely connected protected areas. These metapopulations face gene flow restriction and run the risk of genetic diversity erosion. In this context, we assessed the "genetic health" of free ranging southern African Cape buffalo populations (S.c. caffer) and investigated the origins of their current genetic structure. The analyses were based on 264 samples from 6 southern African countries that were genotyped for 14 autosomal and 3 Y-chromosomal microsatellites.

Results: The analyses differentiated three significant genetic clusters, hereafter referred to as Northern (N), Central (C) and Southern (S) clusters. The results suggest that splitting of the N and C clusters occurred around 6000 to 8400 years ago. Both N and C clusters displayed high genetic diversity (mean allelic richness (A r ) of 7.217, average genetic diversity over loci of 0.594, mean private alleles (P a ) of 11), low differentiation, and an absence of an inbreeding depression signal (mean F IS = 0.037). The third (S) cluster, a tiny population enclosed within a small isolated protected area, likely originated from a more recent isolation and experienced genetic drift (F IS = 0.062, mean A r = 6.160, P a = 2). This study also highlighted the impact of translocations between clusters on the genetic structure of several African buffalo populations. Lower differentiation estimates were observed between C and N sampling localities that experienced translocation over the last century.

Conclusions: We showed that the current genetic structure of southern African Cape buffalo populations results from both ancient and recent processes. The splitting time of N and C clusters suggests that the current pattern results from human-induced factors and/or from the aridification process that occurred during the Holocene period. The more recent S cluster genetic drift probably results of processes that occurred over the last centuries (habitat fragmentation, diseases). Management practices of African buffalo populations should consider the micro-evolutionary changes highlighted in the present study.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus