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EEG hyper-connectivity in high-risk infants is associated with later autism.

Orekhova EV, Elsabbagh M, Jones EJ, Dawson G, Charman T, Johnson MH, BASIS Te - J Neurodev Disord (2014)

Bottom Line: As a group, high-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD demonstrated elevated phase-lagged alpha-range connectivity as compared to both low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go on to ASD.These effects were not attributable to differences in behavior during the EEG session or to differences in spectral power.The results suggest that early hyper-connectivity in the alpha frequency range is an important feature of the ASD neurophysiological phenotype.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, Henry Welcome Building, London, WC1E 7HX UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been previously reported that structural and functional brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is atypical and may vary with age. However, to date, no measures of functional connectivity measured within the first 2 years have specifically associated with a later ASD diagnosis.

Methods: In the present study, we analyzed functional brain connectivity in 14-month-old infants at high and low familial risk for ASD using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG was recorded while infants attended to videos. Connectivity was assessed using debiased weighted phase lag index (dbWPLI). At 36 months, the high-risk infants were assessed for symptoms of ASD.

Results: As a group, high-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD demonstrated elevated phase-lagged alpha-range connectivity as compared to both low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go on to ASD. Hyper-connectivity was most prominent over frontal and central areas. The degree of hyper-connectivity at 14 months strongly correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in participants with ASD at 3 years. These effects were not attributable to differences in behavior during the EEG session or to differences in spectral power.

Conclusions: The results suggest that early hyper-connectivity in the alpha frequency range is an important feature of the ASD neurophysiological phenotype.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Correlations (Spearmanrho) between alpha-range connectivity and ADI-R domains in HR-ASD infants (N= 9*) and combined HR group (N= 26*). Red and blue squares mark, respectively, HR-ASD and HR-no-ASD infants. Global connectivity (upper panels) marginally correlates with the ADI-R Social and Communication composite score and with the ADI Repetitive Behavior score in the combined HR sample. The lower panel shows the correlation between the ADI-R Repetitive Behavior score and dbWPLI values averaged across connections that were significantly elevated in HR-ASD comparative to both comparison groups. *Note that one HR-ASD infant and one HR-no-ASD infant did not have ADI-R data.
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Fig4: Correlations (Spearmanrho) between alpha-range connectivity and ADI-R domains in HR-ASD infants (N= 9*) and combined HR group (N= 26*). Red and blue squares mark, respectively, HR-ASD and HR-no-ASD infants. Global connectivity (upper panels) marginally correlates with the ADI-R Social and Communication composite score and with the ADI Repetitive Behavior score in the combined HR sample. The lower panel shows the correlation between the ADI-R Repetitive Behavior score and dbWPLI values averaged across connections that were significantly elevated in HR-ASD comparative to both comparison groups. *Note that one HR-ASD infant and one HR-no-ASD infant did not have ADI-R data.

Mentions: In the whole sample of HR infants, there was a trend correlation between global connectivity and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB) scale (Spearman rho = 0.35, N = 26, P = 0.072), as well as with a composite (arithmetic sum) of ADI-R Social and Communication scales (Spearman rho = 0.38, N = 26, P = 0.053) (Figure 4, upper panel) assessed at 3 years. No significant correlations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Social Communication Total score or RRB score were found (P’s > 0.35). We further checked if the alpha-range connectivity in the regions that were hyper-connected in the HR-ASD infants was related to the severity of autism symptoms within the HR-ASD group. To do so, we calculated Spearman’s rank correlations between ADI-R/ADOS scales and dbWPLI averaged across all connections that reliably differentiated the HR-ASD from both comparison groups (Figure 2C). A significant correlation was found for the ADI-R RRB score (Spearman rho = 0.81, N = 9, P = 0.009, Figure 4, lower panel), but not for the ADI Social and Communication composite score (Spearman rho = 0.36, P = 0.33) or for ADOS domains (P’s > 0.35). No correlation with ADI-RRB has been found in the HR-no-ASD group, although this can be due to low variability of ADI-RRB scores in this group (the scores ranged 1–7 in the HR-ASD infants, while only two infants in the HR-no-ASD group had the ADI-RRB score over 2).Figure 4


EEG hyper-connectivity in high-risk infants is associated with later autism.

Orekhova EV, Elsabbagh M, Jones EJ, Dawson G, Charman T, Johnson MH, BASIS Te - J Neurodev Disord (2014)

Correlations (Spearmanrho) between alpha-range connectivity and ADI-R domains in HR-ASD infants (N= 9*) and combined HR group (N= 26*). Red and blue squares mark, respectively, HR-ASD and HR-no-ASD infants. Global connectivity (upper panels) marginally correlates with the ADI-R Social and Communication composite score and with the ADI Repetitive Behavior score in the combined HR sample. The lower panel shows the correlation between the ADI-R Repetitive Behavior score and dbWPLI values averaged across connections that were significantly elevated in HR-ASD comparative to both comparison groups. *Note that one HR-ASD infant and one HR-no-ASD infant did not have ADI-R data.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232695&req=5

Fig4: Correlations (Spearmanrho) between alpha-range connectivity and ADI-R domains in HR-ASD infants (N= 9*) and combined HR group (N= 26*). Red and blue squares mark, respectively, HR-ASD and HR-no-ASD infants. Global connectivity (upper panels) marginally correlates with the ADI-R Social and Communication composite score and with the ADI Repetitive Behavior score in the combined HR sample. The lower panel shows the correlation between the ADI-R Repetitive Behavior score and dbWPLI values averaged across connections that were significantly elevated in HR-ASD comparative to both comparison groups. *Note that one HR-ASD infant and one HR-no-ASD infant did not have ADI-R data.
Mentions: In the whole sample of HR infants, there was a trend correlation between global connectivity and the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors (RRB) scale (Spearman rho = 0.35, N = 26, P = 0.072), as well as with a composite (arithmetic sum) of ADI-R Social and Communication scales (Spearman rho = 0.38, N = 26, P = 0.053) (Figure 4, upper panel) assessed at 3 years. No significant correlations with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) Social Communication Total score or RRB score were found (P’s > 0.35). We further checked if the alpha-range connectivity in the regions that were hyper-connected in the HR-ASD infants was related to the severity of autism symptoms within the HR-ASD group. To do so, we calculated Spearman’s rank correlations between ADI-R/ADOS scales and dbWPLI averaged across all connections that reliably differentiated the HR-ASD from both comparison groups (Figure 2C). A significant correlation was found for the ADI-R RRB score (Spearman rho = 0.81, N = 9, P = 0.009, Figure 4, lower panel), but not for the ADI Social and Communication composite score (Spearman rho = 0.36, P = 0.33) or for ADOS domains (P’s > 0.35). No correlation with ADI-RRB has been found in the HR-no-ASD group, although this can be due to low variability of ADI-RRB scores in this group (the scores ranged 1–7 in the HR-ASD infants, while only two infants in the HR-no-ASD group had the ADI-RRB score over 2).Figure 4

Bottom Line: As a group, high-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD demonstrated elevated phase-lagged alpha-range connectivity as compared to both low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go on to ASD.These effects were not attributable to differences in behavior during the EEG session or to differences in spectral power.The results suggest that early hyper-connectivity in the alpha frequency range is an important feature of the ASD neurophysiological phenotype.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, School of Psychology, Birkbeck, University of London, Henry Welcome Building, London, WC1E 7HX UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: It has been previously reported that structural and functional brain connectivity in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is atypical and may vary with age. However, to date, no measures of functional connectivity measured within the first 2 years have specifically associated with a later ASD diagnosis.

Methods: In the present study, we analyzed functional brain connectivity in 14-month-old infants at high and low familial risk for ASD using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG was recorded while infants attended to videos. Connectivity was assessed using debiased weighted phase lag index (dbWPLI). At 36 months, the high-risk infants were assessed for symptoms of ASD.

Results: As a group, high-risk infants who were later diagnosed with ASD demonstrated elevated phase-lagged alpha-range connectivity as compared to both low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go on to ASD. Hyper-connectivity was most prominent over frontal and central areas. The degree of hyper-connectivity at 14 months strongly correlated with the severity of restricted and repetitive behaviors in participants with ASD at 3 years. These effects were not attributable to differences in behavior during the EEG session or to differences in spectral power.

Conclusions: The results suggest that early hyper-connectivity in the alpha frequency range is an important feature of the ASD neurophysiological phenotype.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus