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Müllerian mimicry as a result of codivergence between velvet ants and spider wasps.

Rodriguez J, Pitts JP, von Dohlen CD, Wilson JS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla.We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless) for Psorthaspis species and compared it to a dated phylogeny of Dasymutilla.In addition, our tests indicate that Psorthaspis and Dasymutilla codiverged to produce similar color patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have delineated a large Nearctic Müllerian mimicry complex in Dasymutilla velvet ants. Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla. We tested the idea that Psorthaspis spider wasps are participating in the Dasymutilla mimicry complex and that they codiverged with Dasymutilla. We performed morphometric analyses and human perception tests, and tabulated distributional records to determine the fit of Psorthaspis to the Dasymutilla mimicry complex. We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless) for Psorthaspis species and compared it to a dated phylogeny of Dasymutilla. We tested for codivergence between the two groups using two statistical analyses. Our results show that Psorthaspis spider wasps are morphologically similar to the Dasymutilla mimicry rings. In addition, our tests indicate that Psorthaspis and Dasymutilla codiverged to produce similar color patterns. This study expands the breadth of the Dasymutilla Müllerian mimicry complex and provides insights about how codivergence influenced the evolution of mimicry in these groups.

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Psorthaspis spider wasp and velvet ant mimicry ring morphology and distribution, and Psorthaspis chronogram (a) Color patterns of the five velvet ant mimicry rings described by Wilson et al. (2012).(b) Geographic distribution of the five velvet ant mimicry rings. (c) Color pattern of the nine Psorthaspis species placed next to their putative velvet ant mimicry rings. Numbers under each Psorthaspis species correspond to their positions on the phylogenetic tree and in Figure 2. Species number 2 [Psorthaspis texana] and number 9 [Psorthaspis nigriceps] did not yield usable DNA samples and was therefore not included in the phylogenetic analysis. (d) Geographic distributions of the Psorthaspis spider wasp mimicry rings. (e) Psorthaspis spider wasp chronogram. Bayesian posterior probabilities are displayed on nodes.
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pone-0112942-g001: Psorthaspis spider wasp and velvet ant mimicry ring morphology and distribution, and Psorthaspis chronogram (a) Color patterns of the five velvet ant mimicry rings described by Wilson et al. (2012).(b) Geographic distribution of the five velvet ant mimicry rings. (c) Color pattern of the nine Psorthaspis species placed next to their putative velvet ant mimicry rings. Numbers under each Psorthaspis species correspond to their positions on the phylogenetic tree and in Figure 2. Species number 2 [Psorthaspis texana] and number 9 [Psorthaspis nigriceps] did not yield usable DNA samples and was therefore not included in the phylogenetic analysis. (d) Geographic distributions of the Psorthaspis spider wasp mimicry rings. (e) Psorthaspis spider wasp chronogram. Bayesian posterior probabilities are displayed on nodes.

Mentions: The NMDS and PERMANOVA analyses indicate that morphological traits of Psorthaspis spider wasps fall within Dasymutilla mimicry rings to which they were assigned a priori (Figures 1 and 2). The overall effect of the mimicry ring as a categorical variable was F = 22.503, R2 = 0.616, NMDS stress = 0.14, P<0.001. Despite the overall similarity, the plot of the NMDS and the stress value show that Psorthaspis often do not fit tightly with Dasymutilla in morphospace, but rather seem to fall out near the periphery of the velvet ant clusters. The sole exception was the Eastern mimicry ring, which fell within the middle of the velvet ant distribution (Figure 2).


Müllerian mimicry as a result of codivergence between velvet ants and spider wasps.

Rodriguez J, Pitts JP, von Dohlen CD, Wilson JS - PLoS ONE (2014)

Psorthaspis spider wasp and velvet ant mimicry ring morphology and distribution, and Psorthaspis chronogram (a) Color patterns of the five velvet ant mimicry rings described by Wilson et al. (2012).(b) Geographic distribution of the five velvet ant mimicry rings. (c) Color pattern of the nine Psorthaspis species placed next to their putative velvet ant mimicry rings. Numbers under each Psorthaspis species correspond to their positions on the phylogenetic tree and in Figure 2. Species number 2 [Psorthaspis texana] and number 9 [Psorthaspis nigriceps] did not yield usable DNA samples and was therefore not included in the phylogenetic analysis. (d) Geographic distributions of the Psorthaspis spider wasp mimicry rings. (e) Psorthaspis spider wasp chronogram. Bayesian posterior probabilities are displayed on nodes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232588&req=5

pone-0112942-g001: Psorthaspis spider wasp and velvet ant mimicry ring morphology and distribution, and Psorthaspis chronogram (a) Color patterns of the five velvet ant mimicry rings described by Wilson et al. (2012).(b) Geographic distribution of the five velvet ant mimicry rings. (c) Color pattern of the nine Psorthaspis species placed next to their putative velvet ant mimicry rings. Numbers under each Psorthaspis species correspond to their positions on the phylogenetic tree and in Figure 2. Species number 2 [Psorthaspis texana] and number 9 [Psorthaspis nigriceps] did not yield usable DNA samples and was therefore not included in the phylogenetic analysis. (d) Geographic distributions of the Psorthaspis spider wasp mimicry rings. (e) Psorthaspis spider wasp chronogram. Bayesian posterior probabilities are displayed on nodes.
Mentions: The NMDS and PERMANOVA analyses indicate that morphological traits of Psorthaspis spider wasps fall within Dasymutilla mimicry rings to which they were assigned a priori (Figures 1 and 2). The overall effect of the mimicry ring as a categorical variable was F = 22.503, R2 = 0.616, NMDS stress = 0.14, P<0.001. Despite the overall similarity, the plot of the NMDS and the stress value show that Psorthaspis often do not fit tightly with Dasymutilla in morphospace, but rather seem to fall out near the periphery of the velvet ant clusters. The sole exception was the Eastern mimicry ring, which fell within the middle of the velvet ant distribution (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla.We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless) for Psorthaspis species and compared it to a dated phylogeny of Dasymutilla.In addition, our tests indicate that Psorthaspis and Dasymutilla codiverged to produce similar color patterns.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Recent studies have delineated a large Nearctic Müllerian mimicry complex in Dasymutilla velvet ants. Psorthaspis spider wasps live in areas where this mimicry complex is found and are phenotypically similar to Dasymutilla. We tested the idea that Psorthaspis spider wasps are participating in the Dasymutilla mimicry complex and that they codiverged with Dasymutilla. We performed morphometric analyses and human perception tests, and tabulated distributional records to determine the fit of Psorthaspis to the Dasymutilla mimicry complex. We inferred a dated phylogeny using nuclear molecular markers (28S, elongation factor 1-alpha, long-wavelength rhodopsin and wingless) for Psorthaspis species and compared it to a dated phylogeny of Dasymutilla. We tested for codivergence between the two groups using two statistical analyses. Our results show that Psorthaspis spider wasps are morphologically similar to the Dasymutilla mimicry rings. In addition, our tests indicate that Psorthaspis and Dasymutilla codiverged to produce similar color patterns. This study expands the breadth of the Dasymutilla Müllerian mimicry complex and provides insights about how codivergence influenced the evolution of mimicry in these groups.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus