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New Approaches to Comparative and Animal Stress Biology Research in the Post-genomic Era: A Contextual Overview.

Biggar KK, Storey KB - Comput Struct Biotechnol J (2014)

Bottom Line: Such tools can be used in comparative stress biology in the characterization of animal responses to environmental challenges.Building upon the findings of past research, while utilizing new technologies in the appropriate manner, future studies can be carried out in new and exciting areas still unexplored.Proper use of rapidly developing technologies will help to create a complete understanding of the animal stress response and survival mechanisms utilized by many diverse organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Although much is known about the physiological responses of many environmental stresses in tolerant animals, studies evaluating the regulation of stress-induced mechanisms that regulate the transitions to and from this state are beginning to explore new and fascinating areas of molecular research. Current findings have developed a general, but refined, view of the important molecular pathways contributing to stress-survival. However, studies utilizing newly developed technologies that broadly focus on genomic and proteomic screening are beginning to identify many new targets for future study. This minireview will provide a contextual overview on the use of DNA/RNA sequencing, microRNA annotation and prediction software, protein structure and function prediction tools, as well as methods of high-throughput protein expression analysis. We will also use select examples to highlight the existing use of these technologies in stress biology research. Such tools can be used in comparative stress biology in the characterization of animal responses to environmental challenges. Although there are many areas of study left to be explored, research in comparative stress biology will always be continuing as new technologies allow the further analysis of cell function, and new paradigms in gene regulation and regulatory molecules (such as microRNAs) are continuing to be discovered. Building upon the findings of past research, while utilizing new technologies in the appropriate manner, future studies can be carried out in new and exciting areas still unexplored. Proper use of rapidly developing technologies will help to create a complete understanding of the animal stress response and survival mechanisms utilized by many diverse organisms.

No MeSH data available.


Luminex xMAP system. Luminex is based on microsphere bead technology that relies on flow cytometry and target-capture ligand binding.
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f0020: Luminex xMAP system. Luminex is based on microsphere bead technology that relies on flow cytometry and target-capture ligand binding.

Mentions: Multiplex assays are widely used in functional genomics experiments that assay the state of a type of target (e.g. microRNA, mRNA, protein) within a single biological sample. Multiplexing assays work by performing multiple parallel reactions for different targets, greatly reducing the time needed to complete the analysis. Various companies are currently developing and refining multiplex technologies. Luminex xMAP technology is built on a flow cytometry platform that utilizes fluorescently tagged microspheres to detect the target analyte. Each color-coded tiny microsphere can be coated with a reagent specific to a particular bioassay, allowing the capture and detection of specific analytes from a sample. Within the analyzer, lasers excite the internal dyes that identify each microsphere particle, and also any reporter dye captured during the assay (Fig. 4). Currently, xMAP technology allows multiplexing of up to 500 unique assays within a single sample. The use of Luminex xMAP technology was recently used to determine the differential expression profiles of microRNA transcripts in response to dehydration stress in the tissues of Xenopus laevis[16]. Different from Luminex-based analysis, Mesoscale Discovery utilizes small antibody arrays, spotted onto the bottom of a microplate (available in 24-, 96-, and 384-well formats). In essence, the technology is at the cross section of Luminex and antibody microarrays, with the capability to analyze up to 100 spots per well. Like Luminex arrays, this technology also requires the use of specialized equipment. To date, several comparative studies have used Luminex technology to protein expression during hibernation [59,60]. For example, Luminex has recently been used to determine the activation of insulin signaling pathways pre-, post- and during hibernation in grizzly bears [59]. The technology has also been used to determine the activation response of immunological-response to white-nose syndrome, finding that bats showing visible signs of infection had significantly higher IL-4 expression when compared to bats without visible infection [60].


New Approaches to Comparative and Animal Stress Biology Research in the Post-genomic Era: A Contextual Overview.

Biggar KK, Storey KB - Comput Struct Biotechnol J (2014)

Luminex xMAP system. Luminex is based on microsphere bead technology that relies on flow cytometry and target-capture ligand binding.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232569&req=5

f0020: Luminex xMAP system. Luminex is based on microsphere bead technology that relies on flow cytometry and target-capture ligand binding.
Mentions: Multiplex assays are widely used in functional genomics experiments that assay the state of a type of target (e.g. microRNA, mRNA, protein) within a single biological sample. Multiplexing assays work by performing multiple parallel reactions for different targets, greatly reducing the time needed to complete the analysis. Various companies are currently developing and refining multiplex technologies. Luminex xMAP technology is built on a flow cytometry platform that utilizes fluorescently tagged microspheres to detect the target analyte. Each color-coded tiny microsphere can be coated with a reagent specific to a particular bioassay, allowing the capture and detection of specific analytes from a sample. Within the analyzer, lasers excite the internal dyes that identify each microsphere particle, and also any reporter dye captured during the assay (Fig. 4). Currently, xMAP technology allows multiplexing of up to 500 unique assays within a single sample. The use of Luminex xMAP technology was recently used to determine the differential expression profiles of microRNA transcripts in response to dehydration stress in the tissues of Xenopus laevis[16]. Different from Luminex-based analysis, Mesoscale Discovery utilizes small antibody arrays, spotted onto the bottom of a microplate (available in 24-, 96-, and 384-well formats). In essence, the technology is at the cross section of Luminex and antibody microarrays, with the capability to analyze up to 100 spots per well. Like Luminex arrays, this technology also requires the use of specialized equipment. To date, several comparative studies have used Luminex technology to protein expression during hibernation [59,60]. For example, Luminex has recently been used to determine the activation of insulin signaling pathways pre-, post- and during hibernation in grizzly bears [59]. The technology has also been used to determine the activation response of immunological-response to white-nose syndrome, finding that bats showing visible signs of infection had significantly higher IL-4 expression when compared to bats without visible infection [60].

Bottom Line: Such tools can be used in comparative stress biology in the characterization of animal responses to environmental challenges.Building upon the findings of past research, while utilizing new technologies in the appropriate manner, future studies can be carried out in new and exciting areas still unexplored.Proper use of rapidly developing technologies will help to create a complete understanding of the animal stress response and survival mechanisms utilized by many diverse organisms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada.

ABSTRACT
Although much is known about the physiological responses of many environmental stresses in tolerant animals, studies evaluating the regulation of stress-induced mechanisms that regulate the transitions to and from this state are beginning to explore new and fascinating areas of molecular research. Current findings have developed a general, but refined, view of the important molecular pathways contributing to stress-survival. However, studies utilizing newly developed technologies that broadly focus on genomic and proteomic screening are beginning to identify many new targets for future study. This minireview will provide a contextual overview on the use of DNA/RNA sequencing, microRNA annotation and prediction software, protein structure and function prediction tools, as well as methods of high-throughput protein expression analysis. We will also use select examples to highlight the existing use of these technologies in stress biology research. Such tools can be used in comparative stress biology in the characterization of animal responses to environmental challenges. Although there are many areas of study left to be explored, research in comparative stress biology will always be continuing as new technologies allow the further analysis of cell function, and new paradigms in gene regulation and regulatory molecules (such as microRNAs) are continuing to be discovered. Building upon the findings of past research, while utilizing new technologies in the appropriate manner, future studies can be carried out in new and exciting areas still unexplored. Proper use of rapidly developing technologies will help to create a complete understanding of the animal stress response and survival mechanisms utilized by many diverse organisms.

No MeSH data available.