Limits...
Disclosure of genetic information and change in dietary intake: a randomized controlled trial.

Nielsen DE, El-Sohemy A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11).These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to general population-based dietary advice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 150 College St, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E2, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.

Methods: A double-blinded, parallel group, 2:1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138). The intervention group (n = 92) received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46) received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice.

Results: Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day) compared to the control group (-287.3 ± 114.1 vs. 129.8 ± 118.2, p = 0.008). Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11). Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06).

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to general population-based dietary advice.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01353014.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) diagram and subject flow through the trial.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232422&req=5

pone-0112665-g001: Consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) diagram and subject flow through the trial.

Mentions: The present study was intended to mimic the nature of a direct-to-consumer genetic test such that all study materials were distributed and completed in the mail or electronically and no in-person contact was made with subjects for the present study. Details on the study design have been published elsewhere [13]. Briefly, subjects (n = 157) who had previously participated in a nutrigenomics research study and had provided a blood sample were invited to complete a 196-item, semi-quantitative Toronto-modified Willet food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and were then randomized to an intervention or control group (Figure 1). Subject recruitment occurred from May 2011 to August 2011, the 3-month follow-up assessment occurred from September 2011 to January 2012 and the 12-month follow-up assessment took place from June 2012-October 2012. Since the recommendations in this study were based on caffeine, vitamin C, sugar, and sodium, eligible participants were those who consumed at least 100 mg of caffeine per day, 10% of energy from total sugars per day, and 1,500 mg of sodium per day and did not take vitamin C-containing supplements. Eligible women who were pregnant or breast-feeding at the time of recruitment were excluded from the study Subjects were given information on portion sizes, which were indicated for most FFQ items, and were asked to select how frequently they consumed the items over the past month from a list of frequency responses. The FFQ was used to collect detailed information on intake of fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meats and alternatives, grain products, sweets and baked goods, processed and prepared foods, and caffeinated and non-caffeinated beverages. Nutrient analyses were carried out at the Harvard School of Public Health Channing Laboratory using the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.


Disclosure of genetic information and change in dietary intake: a randomized controlled trial.

Nielsen DE, El-Sohemy A - PLoS ONE (2014)

Consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) diagram and subject flow through the trial.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232422&req=5

pone-0112665-g001: Consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) diagram and subject flow through the trial.
Mentions: The present study was intended to mimic the nature of a direct-to-consumer genetic test such that all study materials were distributed and completed in the mail or electronically and no in-person contact was made with subjects for the present study. Details on the study design have been published elsewhere [13]. Briefly, subjects (n = 157) who had previously participated in a nutrigenomics research study and had provided a blood sample were invited to complete a 196-item, semi-quantitative Toronto-modified Willet food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and were then randomized to an intervention or control group (Figure 1). Subject recruitment occurred from May 2011 to August 2011, the 3-month follow-up assessment occurred from September 2011 to January 2012 and the 12-month follow-up assessment took place from June 2012-October 2012. Since the recommendations in this study were based on caffeine, vitamin C, sugar, and sodium, eligible participants were those who consumed at least 100 mg of caffeine per day, 10% of energy from total sugars per day, and 1,500 mg of sodium per day and did not take vitamin C-containing supplements. Eligible women who were pregnant or breast-feeding at the time of recruitment were excluded from the study Subjects were given information on portion sizes, which were indicated for most FFQ items, and were asked to select how frequently they consumed the items over the past month from a list of frequency responses. The FFQ was used to collect detailed information on intake of fruits and vegetables, dairy products, meats and alternatives, grain products, sweets and baked goods, processed and prepared foods, and caffeinated and non-caffeinated beverages. Nutrient analyses were carried out at the Harvard School of Public Health Channing Laboratory using the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference.

Bottom Line: However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11).These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to general population-based dietary advice.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Toronto, 150 College St, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E2, Canada.

ABSTRACT

Background: Proponents of consumer genetic tests claim that the information can positively impact health behaviors and aid in chronic disease prevention. However, the effects of disclosing genetic information on dietary intake behavior are not clear.

Methods: A double-blinded, parallel group, 2:1 online randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the short- and long-term effects of disclosing nutrition-related genetic information for personalized nutrition on dietary intakes of caffeine, vitamin C, added sugars, and sodium. Participants were healthy men and women aged 20-35 years (n = 138). The intervention group (n = 92) received personalized DNA-based dietary advice for 12-months and the control group (n = 46) received general dietary recommendations with no genetic information for 12-months. Food frequency questionnaires were collected at baseline and 3- and 12-months after the intervention to assess dietary intakes. General linear models were used to compare changes in intakes between those receiving general dietary advice and those receiving DNA-based dietary advice.

Results: Compared to the control group, no significant changes to dietary intakes of the nutrients were observed at 3-months. At 12-months, participants in the intervention group who possessed a risk version of the ACE gene, and were advised to limit their sodium intake, significantly reduced their sodium intake (mg/day) compared to the control group (-287.3 ± 114.1 vs. 129.8 ± 118.2, p = 0.008). Those who had the non-risk version of ACE did not significantly change their sodium intake compared to the control group (12-months: -244.2 ± 150.2, p = 0.11). Among those with the risk version of the ACE gene, the proportion who met the targeted recommendation of 1500 mg/day increased from 19% at baseline to 34% after 12 months (p = 0.06).

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that disclosing genetic information for personalized nutrition results in greater changes in intake for some dietary components compared to general population-based dietary advice.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01353014.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus