S-layers: principles and applications.
Bottom Line: S-layers are also identified to contribute to virulence when present as a structural component of pathogens.In Archaea, most of which possess S-layers as exclusive wall component, they are involved in determining cell shape and cell division.Studies on structure, chemistry, genetics, assembly, function, and evolutionary relationship of S-layers revealed considerable application potential in (nano)biotechnology, biomimetics, biomedicine, and synthetic biology.
Affiliation: Institute of Biophysics, Department of Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus
Mentions: S-layer lattices generally exhibit oblique (p1, p2), square (p4), or hexagonal (p3, p6) space group symmetry (Fig.3) with center-to-center spacings of the morphological units of 4–35 nm (Beveridge, 1994; Sleytr & Beveridge, 1999; Sleytr et al., 1999, 2002; Albers & Meyer, 2011; Pavkov-Keller et al., 2011). Hexagonal symmetry is predominant among Archaea (Messner & Sleytr, 1992; Messner et al., 2010; Albers & Meyer, 2011). Depending on the lattice type, the morphological units consist of one, two, three, four, or six monomers, respectively (Fig.3). Bacterial S-layers are generally 5–10 nm thick, whereas archaeal S-layers frequently exhibit a much thicker ‘mushroom-like structure’ with pillar-like domains anchored to the plasma membrane (Baumeister & Engelhardt, 1987; Albers & Meyer, 2011). Bacterial S-layers reveal a rather smooth outer and a more corrugated inner surface. S-layers represent highly porous protein lattices (30–70% porosity) with pores of uniform size and morphology in the 2–8 nm range. Many S-layers possess two or even more distinct classes of pores (Sleytr & Beveridge, 1999; Sleytr et al., 1999, 2002; Albers & Meyer, 2011; Pavkov-Keller et al., 2011).
Affiliation: Institute of Biophysics, Department of Nanobiotechnology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.