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Generation of a large volume of clinically relevant nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles for cell culture studies.

Liu A, Ingham E, Fisher J, Tipper JL - Proc Inst Mech Eng H (2014)

Bottom Line: The results indicated that microbial contamination was absent and endotoxin levels were low and within acceptable limits for the pharmaceutical industry, when a six-station pin-on-plate wear simulator was used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles in a non-sterile environment.Different pore-sized polycarbonate filters were investigated to isolate nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles from the wear test lubricants.The use of the filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore sizes allowed successful isolation of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles with a size range of < 100 nm, which was suitable for cell culture studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

ABSTRACT
It has recently been shown that the wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip and knee prostheses leads to the generation of nanometre-sized particles, in addition to micron-sized particles. The biological activity of nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles has not, however, previously been studied due to difficulties in generating sufficient volumes of nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles suitable for cell culture studies. In this study, wear simulation methods were investigated to generate a large volume of endotoxin-free clinically relevant nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles. Both single-station and six-station multidirectional pin-on-plate wear simulators were used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles under sterile and non-sterile conditions. Microbial contamination and endotoxin levels in the lubricants were determined. The results indicated that microbial contamination was absent and endotoxin levels were low and within acceptable limits for the pharmaceutical industry, when a six-station pin-on-plate wear simulator was used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles in a non-sterile environment. Different pore-sized polycarbonate filters were investigated to isolate nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles from the wear test lubricants. The use of the filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore sizes allowed successful isolation of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles with a size range of < 100 nm, which was suitable for cell culture studies.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

FEG-SEM images and size distributions of UHMWPE wear debris isolated from lubricants from six-station wear simulation by filtering through a filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm filters: (a) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 90,000×, (b) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 200,000×, (c) the percentage number and (d) the percentage area distributions of wear debris.
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fig4-0954411914528308: FEG-SEM images and size distributions of UHMWPE wear debris isolated from lubricants from six-station wear simulation by filtering through a filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm filters: (a) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 90,000×, (b) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 200,000×, (c) the percentage number and (d) the percentage area distributions of wear debris.

Mentions: The lubricants from six-station wear simulation were filtered through the filter sequence C (10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore-sized filters). The morphologies of particles obtained on the final 0.015 µm filters are shown in Figure 4. Agglomerated granular nanometre-sized particles were abundant on the 0.015 µm filter (Figure 4(a)). Particles with a size range greater than 100 nm were occasionally seen on the filter. Particles with a size range less than 50 nm were observed clearly at a high magnification of 200,000× (Figure 4(b)). Of the wear particles isolated on the 0.015 µm filter, 99.2% were in the nanometre-sized range of less than 100 nm (Figure 4(c)). The mode of the percentage number of particles was 30–39 nm. Particles in the less than 100 nm size range accounted for the majority of the area on the 0.015 µm filter, while the percentage area represented by particles with the size of above 100 nm was 4.5% (Figure 4(d)).


Generation of a large volume of clinically relevant nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles for cell culture studies.

Liu A, Ingham E, Fisher J, Tipper JL - Proc Inst Mech Eng H (2014)

FEG-SEM images and size distributions of UHMWPE wear debris isolated from lubricants from six-station wear simulation by filtering through a filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm filters: (a) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 90,000×, (b) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 200,000×, (c) the percentage number and (d) the percentage area distributions of wear debris.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4232278&req=5

fig4-0954411914528308: FEG-SEM images and size distributions of UHMWPE wear debris isolated from lubricants from six-station wear simulation by filtering through a filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm filters: (a) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 90,000×, (b) nanometre-sized wear debris analysed at 200,000×, (c) the percentage number and (d) the percentage area distributions of wear debris.
Mentions: The lubricants from six-station wear simulation were filtered through the filter sequence C (10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore-sized filters). The morphologies of particles obtained on the final 0.015 µm filters are shown in Figure 4. Agglomerated granular nanometre-sized particles were abundant on the 0.015 µm filter (Figure 4(a)). Particles with a size range greater than 100 nm were occasionally seen on the filter. Particles with a size range less than 50 nm were observed clearly at a high magnification of 200,000× (Figure 4(b)). Of the wear particles isolated on the 0.015 µm filter, 99.2% were in the nanometre-sized range of less than 100 nm (Figure 4(c)). The mode of the percentage number of particles was 30–39 nm. Particles in the less than 100 nm size range accounted for the majority of the area on the 0.015 µm filter, while the percentage area represented by particles with the size of above 100 nm was 4.5% (Figure 4(d)).

Bottom Line: The results indicated that microbial contamination was absent and endotoxin levels were low and within acceptable limits for the pharmaceutical industry, when a six-station pin-on-plate wear simulator was used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles in a non-sterile environment.Different pore-sized polycarbonate filters were investigated to isolate nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles from the wear test lubricants.The use of the filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore sizes allowed successful isolation of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles with a size range of < 100 nm, which was suitable for cell culture studies.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.

ABSTRACT
It has recently been shown that the wear of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene in hip and knee prostheses leads to the generation of nanometre-sized particles, in addition to micron-sized particles. The biological activity of nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles has not, however, previously been studied due to difficulties in generating sufficient volumes of nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles suitable for cell culture studies. In this study, wear simulation methods were investigated to generate a large volume of endotoxin-free clinically relevant nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles. Both single-station and six-station multidirectional pin-on-plate wear simulators were used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles under sterile and non-sterile conditions. Microbial contamination and endotoxin levels in the lubricants were determined. The results indicated that microbial contamination was absent and endotoxin levels were low and within acceptable limits for the pharmaceutical industry, when a six-station pin-on-plate wear simulator was used to generate ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles in a non-sterile environment. Different pore-sized polycarbonate filters were investigated to isolate nanometre-sized ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles from the wear test lubricants. The use of the filter sequence of 10, 1, 0.1, 0.1 and 0.015 µm pore sizes allowed successful isolation of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene wear particles with a size range of < 100 nm, which was suitable for cell culture studies.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus